Wildlife authorities have observed osteophagia (Roger and Nette 2002), an increased incidence of bark stripping, and tooth breakage (Fig.
Osteophagia is generally considered to occur within ruminant species as a result of phosphorous deficiency (Bowyer 1983, Barrette 1985, Denton et al.
Whether tooth breakage is a result of osteophagia or bark stripping, or even a combination of the two, is unclear.
Osteophagia and antler breakage among Roosevelt elk.
Osteophagia in the Cape porcupine Hystrix afkicaeaustralis.