High-yield cattle, with high nutritional demands, that ingested calcium- and phosphorus-poor plants and that were not supplied with the correct mineral supplements developed osteophagia or sarcophagia, a depraved appetite in which the animals ingest bones or carcasses present in pastures in an attempt to satisfy their mineral needs.
In the Midwest, where there is the largest national contingent of extensive beef cattle production, are also reported outbreaks of botulism related to osteophagia due the difficulty to provide adequate mineral supplementation for animals created over large areas.
Inbotulism cases associated with osteophagia, bone remains are commonly found in the animals' stomachs, which increases the suspicion of intoxication due to botulinum toxins (LOBATO et al.
Although less important than in cattle,, osteophagia associated with calcium and phosphorus deficiency can also result in botulism in other ruminants (RIET-CORREA et al.
Typically, no significant changes are observed post mortem, but the presence of bones in the rumen and reticulum may indicate botulism due to osteophagia.
Wildlife authorities have observed osteophagia (Roger and Nette 2002), an increased incidence of bark stripping, and tooth breakage (Fig.
Osteophagia is generally considered to occur within ruminant species as a result of phosphorous deficiency (Bowyer 1983, Barrette 1985, Denton et al.
Whether tooth breakage is a result of osteophagia or bark stripping, or even a combination of the two, is unclear.
Osteophagia and antler breakage among Roosevelt elk.
Osteophagia in the Cape porcupine Hystrix afkicaeaustralis.