Zionist view, Kaufmann Kohler's orthogenetic
For example, orthogenetic evolutionists accepted a common racial parent-stock but argued that internal developmental laws of variation destined some races for superiority and some races for inferiority.
Cope and Alpheus Hyatt, for example, were American orthogenetic evolutionists who argued that internal laws of biological development trapped certain races in evolutionary ruts, so to speak.
16) They make use of old anthropological categories, orthogenetic and heterogenetic cultures, and infuse new life into these concepts by linking them to two broad types of urban system: the "central place system" and the "network system.
Of particular interest here is the cultural role of such cities; their influence tends toward what the anthropologists Redfield and Singer called the orthogenetic.
While the orthogenetic capital is the highest expression of the national culture, the heterogenetic capital is a place of exception, a source of novelty, a threat to the local culture.
There are hints of this orthogenetic
vision in Aristotle, but it was more clearly enunciated by Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, Herbert Spencer and a veritable host of their intellectual progeny during the twentieth century.
In either case, such orthogenetic
views are contrary to Darwin's metaphysics, and in general contrary to the metaphysics of anybody who eschews supernatural causes.
Before Rensch's (1939, 1943, 1947, 1959) and Simpson's (1944, 1953) analyses, almost all paleontologists were preoccupied with "progressive" trends and embraced almost every evolutionary theory (neo-Lamarckism, orthogenetic
"inner drives," saltationism) except neo-Darwinism.
These generalizations seem out of step with current evolutionary thinking in part because they emerged from theories of orthogenetic evolution in the early 20th century (Brooks and McLennan, 1993).
Those refuted theories were based on assumptions about homoplasious and reductive evolution that stemmed originally from orthogenetic thinking.
Even the Modern Synthesists, while debunking orthogenetic
series and the universality of trends of any kind (e.