ventilation partitioning in adults and children: effect on aerosol deposition in airways.
Obstructive apnea was defined as a complete cessation of oronasal
airflow for a minimum of 10 seconds, and hypopnea was defined as a reduction in airflow of 50% or more accompanied by a decrease of more than 3% in ongoing Pa[O.
The airflow is delivered through a nasal or oronasal
interface, and maintains patency of the upper airway.
An obstructive apnea is defined as interruption of oronasal
airflow of at least 10 seconds, corresponding to a complete obstruction of the upper airways (despite continuous chest and abdominal movements) associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation and/or arousals from sleep.
Hypopneas were defined as a decrease in oronasal
air flow of [greater than or equal to] 50 percent with a corresponding decrease in SpO2 of [greater than or equal to] 4 percent and/or arousal.
The local consequences include oronasal
fistulas, class II perio-endo lesions, pathologic fractures, ocular problems, osteomyelitis, and an increased incidence of oral cancer.
Some patients reach adolescence or adulthood with unrepaired oronasal
fistulas (open communications between the mouth and nose) and alveolar clefts (bone discontinuity defects in the bone supporting the teeth), even though the primary cleft defect has been repaired.
Guinea pigs and ferrets each received 50,000 50% tissue culture infectious doses of the same virus preparation that was used in the horses; guinea pigs received the dose by intraperitoneal injection, and ferrets received the dose by the oronasal
According to Ohki et al, nasal resistance is important only during the period before the shift to oronasal
Nasal and oral breathing scenario did not significantly affect the results and was set to the baseline of oronasal
Overnight polysomnography was performed by a computerized system (Somnologica software, Medcare Flaga, Reykjavik, Iceland) and included the following variables: electrooculogram, electroencephalogram, electromyogram of submental muscles, electromyogram of the anteriortibialis muscle of both legs, electrocardiogram and airflow (with an oronasal
The authors apply NPSV using a ventilator with the usual oronasal
facemask or with a special helmet developed for NPSV that has no contact with the head and may offer more comfort because there is no seal around the nose and mouth.