Montmorillonite (Na-MMT or Mont-0) is easily dispersed at room temperature in a suitable amount of distilled water due to its high hydrophilicity [11, 12], The aqueous solution is containing a calculated amount of the cationic surfactant (CTAB) which can cause the desired level of organophilicity after cation exchange with the montmorillonite's sodium.
Figure 1a and b depicts the different mechanical parameters of the membrane materials as a function of the clay organophilicity.
Hydrophobicity and organophilicity
of MFI zeolites made them useful in the removal of organics from water steams besides their stabilities for separations and catalysis in the presence of water.
Roth stages are attributed to the decomposition of the quaternary alkylammonium group used to modify the organophilicity
of the montmorillonite (53).
The hydroxylethyl pendant group present in the modifier ion of the C30B reduces the organophilicity
of the interlayer increasing the miscibility of the inorganic part by combining with the amino group of the diamine.
To improve the interaction, the charge balancing interlayer cations (typically sodium) present on the MMT are most often replaced by alkyl ammonium ions, facilitating the organophilicity
of the layered silicate surface [4-6].
Although the organophilicity
of the clay is enhanced by a higher interlayer population density, the PET chains would penetrate with difficulty the galleries because of saturation by surfactant molecules or high organic content.
In the preparation of exfoliated PS/LDH composites, it is important to increase the organophilicity of the originally hydrophilic LDH, to ensure the promoted swelling of the double layered aluminate structure by styrene monomer.
In this study, benzoate anions have been intercalated into the LDH layers to increase the interlayer distance and the organophilicity of the tetracalcium aluminate hydrate filler.
Thus, the incorporation of amine governs the organophilicity
of the clay.
By judicious selection of the organic cations, the nature of silicate interlayer, however, can be controlled and thus polymers with varying degrees of polarity and organophilicity
intercalated into the galleries.
Since the natural clay is highly hydrophilic, it is important to improve its organophilicity
so that it will be compatible with organic polymers.