According to Chris Le, a professor in the University of Alberta's Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, the dividing line between toxic and non-toxic arsenic is often presented as non-organic versus organoarsenicals
Therefore, failure to distinguish organoarsenicals
from inorganic arsenic and metabolites of inorganic arsenic in urine may result in misclassification of exposure to the most toxicologically relevant forms of arsenic, which in turn may lead to mischaracterization of the association between urinary arsenic and diabetes.
Organic arsenic compounds (such arsenobetaine found in mushrooms, fish, and shellfish) generally are less toxic, although organoarsenicals
have been used as chemical warfare agents (e.
10:45 BIOTRANSFORMATION STUDIES OF ORGANOARSENICALS
, Abe A.
The phenol extraction procedure has been used previously with good results to separate naturally occurring organoarsenicals
from inorganic salts and highly polar organic compounds present in urine (7).
The biotransformation studies of "hidden" organoarsenicals
As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals.
These present day animal feeds contain mixtures of plant-based products, as well as other ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals.
The rest is present as organoarsenicals, both water soluble and lipid soluble.
The presence of organoarsenicals in marine organisms is commonly assumed to be due to the accumulation of compounds that have been synthesized from As(V) at lower trophic levels.
, such as arsenocholine, tetramethylarsonium ion, trimethylarsine oxide, and trimethylarsine, have also been reported to be present in some seafoods at much lower concentations than arsenobetaine and arsenosugars .
Either the trivalent organoarsenicals
generated during biomethylation of arsenic or the arsenothiols formed in the cell by reaction with NPSH could alter the cellular GSH:GSSG ratio, decreasing the GSH level by the inhibition of GSH reductase.