Orbital pseudotumor with cavernous sinus and sellar extension.
3) In the clinical setting of persistent, progressive, or recurrent orbital disease, biopsy should be performed to rule out orbital pseudotumor.
Orbital pseudotumor may involve extraocular muscles, fat, sclera, optic nerve, or lacrimal gland.
An orbital pseudotumor can have extraorbital extension resulting in widespread clinical symptoms.
Inflammatory orbital pseudotumor with extension beyond the orbit.
Much of what is known about pseudotumors has been gleaned from the ophthalmology literature-particularly, from discussions of the more common orbital pseudotumor.
Several authors have noted that sclerosing disease processes, including sclerosing orbital pseudotumor, are often associated with multifocal sclerotic disease processes.
1,2,5,6) Orbital pseudotumor may also be associated with increases in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, gamma globulin levels, and eosinophil level, as well as rheumatoid factor positivity and an elevated antinuclear antibody level.
1,2) In rare cases, orbital pseudotumors have been associated with other fibroinflammatory diseases, such as retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, Riedel thyroiditis, mediastinal fibrosis, and fibrosis of the lung, parotid gland, and lacrimal glands.
3] It has also been described as part of multifocal or systemic fibrosclerosis, a disease spectrum that also includes retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing mediastinitis, Riedel thyroiditis, and orbital pseudotumor