Current treatments for TED include orbital decompression
surgery to increase the space around the eye by removing tissue or bone.
The Sonopet's use in orbital decompression
(1), and more recently in dacryocystorhinostomy (2), has been documented; its application in orbital tumor excision has not been described.
Graves' eye disease, also known as Graves' ophthalmopathy, would be present in about half of people who have Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder and the treatment for the bulging eyes involved orbital decompression
surgery, whereas, double vision was treated with a different surgery, which straightens the eyes by adjusting the eye muscles.
Bose is experienced in performing orbital decompression
in thyroid eye disease, optic nerve sheath fenestration, muscle surgery in restrictive and paralytic strabismus, lid retraction surgery, Botox injection, and complex surgeries of the head and orbit in association with maxillofacial surgeons and neurosurgeons.
Endocrinologists, pharmacologists, surgeons, and other medical specialists from around the world also discuss differential diagnosis, Graves' disease, styles of coping with stress and patients' disease acceptance level, radioiodine treatment, orbital decompression
in patients with severe thyroid ophthalmopathy, the effectiveness of adrenergic blockers on hyperthyroidism associated insulin resistance, acute thyroid emergencies, thyroid receptor antagonists, thyroid carcinoma, autoimmune thyroid diseases, unusual presentations, and thyroid function in infants with mothers with Graves' disease and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy.
Two of the six patients had dysthyroid optic neuropathy; one proved refractory to intravenous methylprednisolone and the other worsened despite orbital decompression
Surgical orbital decompression
is indicated for patients with compressive optic neuropathy, exposure keratopathy, an uncontrolled elevation of intraocular pressure, globe subluxation, and .
Other endoscopic procedures replacing the more conventional open procedures include endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) for epiphora (watery eye due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction), orbital decompression
for Graves' orbitopathy, optic nerve decompression, drainage of fronto-ethmoidal mucoceles and external fronto-ethmoidectomies for persistent frontal sinus disease.
Topics covered include clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and pathogenesis, thyroid treatment, rehabilitative surgery, orbital decompression
, atypical manifestations, childhood Grave's orbitopathy, and prevention.
The three major and well-established methods of treatments are high-dose systemic glucocorticoids (GCs), orbital radiotherapy alone or preferably associated with GCs, and orbital decompression
is a surgical procedure that is used when the optic nerve is compromised, or there is cosmetically unacceptable proptosis or chronic corneal exposure.
Endoscopic drainage of a periorbital abscess and orbital decompression
were performed as an emergency procedure, and the patient's vision improved immediately.