oligomenorrhea


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Oligomenorrhea

 

Definition

Medical dictionaries define oligomenorrhea as infrequent or very light menstruation. But physicians typically apply a narrower definition, restricting the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea to women whose periods were regularly established before they developed problems with infrequent flow. With oligomenorrhea, menstrual periods occur at intervals of greater than 35 days, with only four to nine periods in a year.

Description

True oligomenorrhea can not occur until menstrual periods have been established. In the United States, 97.5% of women have begun normal menstrual cycles by age 16. The complete absence of menstruation, whether menstrual periods never start or whether they stop after having been established, is called amenorrhea. Oligomenorrhea can become amenorrhea if menstruation stops for six months or more.
It is quite common for women at the beginning and end of their reproductive lives to miss or have irregular periods. This is normal and is usually the result of imperfect coordination between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the ovaries. For no apparent reason, a few women menstruate (with ovulation occurring) on a regular schedule as infrequently as once every two months. For them that schedule is normal and not a cause for concern.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are also likely to suffer from oligomenorrhea. PCOS is a condition in which the ovaries become filled with small cysts. Women with PCOS show menstrual irregularities that range from oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea on the one hand to very heavy, irregular periods on the other. The condition affects about 6% of premenopausal women and is related to excess androgen production.
Other physical and emotional factors also cause a woman to miss periods. These include:
  • emotional stress
  • chronic illness
  • poor nutrition
  • eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa
  • excessive exercise
  • estrogen-secreting tumors
  • illicit use of anabolic steriod drugs to enhance athletic performance
Professional ballet dancers, gymnasts, and ice skaters are especially at risk for oligomenorrhea because they combine strenuous physical activity with a diet intended to keep their weight down. Menstrual irregularities are now known to be one of the three disorders comprising the so-called "female athlete triad," the other disorders being disordered eating and osteoporosis. The triad was first formally named at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 1993, but doctors were aware of the combination of bone mineral loss, stress fractures, eating disorders, and participation in women's sports for several decades before the triad was named. Women's coaches have become increasingly aware of the problem since the early 1990s, and are encouraging female athletes to seek medical advice.

Causes and symptoms

Symptoms of oligomenorrhea include:
  • menstrual periods at intervals of more than 35 days
  • irregular menstrual periods with unpredictable flow
  • some women with oligomenorrhea may have difficulty conceiving.
Oligomenorrhea that occurs in adolescents is often caused by immaturity or lack of synchronization between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries. The hypothalamus is part of the brain that controls body temperature, cellular metabolism, and basic functions such as eating, sleeping, and reproduction. It secretes hormones that regulate the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland is then stimulated to produce hormones that affect growth and reproduction. At the beginning and end of a woman's reproductive life, some of these hormone messages may not be synchronized, causing menstrual irregularities.
In PCOS, oligomenorrhea is probably caused by inappropriate levels of both female and male hormones. Male hormones are produced in small quantities by all women, but in women with PCOS, levels of male hormone (androgens) are slightly higher than in other women. More recently, however, some researchers are hypothesizing that the ovaries of women with PCOS are abnormal in other respects. In 2003, a group of researchers in London reported that there are fundamental differences between the development of egg follicles in normal ovaries and follicle development in the ovaries of women with PCOS.
In athletes, models, actresses, dancers, and women with anorexia nervosa, oligomenorrhea occurs because the ratio of body fat to weight drops too low.

Diagnosis

History and physical examination

Diagnosis of oligomenorrhea begins with the patient informing the doctor about infrequent periods. The doctor will ask for a detailed description of the problem and take a history of how long it has existed and any patterns the patient has observed. A woman can assist the doctor in diagnosing the cause of oligomenorrhea by keeping a record of the time, frequency, length, and quantity of bleeding. She should also tell the doctor about any recent illnesses, including longstanding conditions like diabetes mellitus. The doctor may also inquire about the patient's diet, exercise patterns, sexual activity, contraceptive use, current medications, or past surgical procedures.
The doctor will then perform a physical examination to evaluate the patient's weight in proportion to her height, to check for signs of normal sexual development, to make sure the heart rhythm and other vital signs are normal, and to palpate (feel) the thyroid gland for evidence of swelling.
In the case of female athletes, the doctor may need to establish a relationship of trust with the patient before asking about such matters as diet, practice and workout schedules, and the use of such drugs as steroids or ephedrine. The presence of stress fractures in young women should be investigated. In some cases, the doctor may give the patients the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) or a similar screening questionnaire to help determine whether the patient is at risk for developing anorexia or bulimia.

Laboratory tests

After taking the woman's history, the gynecologist or family practitioner does a pelvic examination and Pap test. To rule out specific causes of oligomenorrhea, the doctor may also do a pregnancy test and blood tests to check the level of thyroid hormone. Based on the initial test results, the doctor may want to do tests to determine the level of other hormones that play a role in reproduction.
As of 2003, more sensitive monoclonal assays have been developed for measuring hormone levels in the blood serum of women with PCOS, thus allowing earlier and more accurate diagnosis.

Imaging studies

In some cases the doctor may order an ultrasound study of the pelvic region to check for anatomical abnormalities, or x rays or a bone scan to check for bone fractures. In a few cases the doctor may order an MRI to rule out tumors affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.

Treatment

Treatment of oligomenorrhea depends on the cause. In adolescents and women near menopause, oligomenorrhea usually needs no treatment. For some athletes, changes in training routines and eating habits may be enough to return the woman to a regular menstrual cycle.
Most patients suffering from oligomenorrhea are treated with birth control pills. Other women, including those with PCOS, are treated with hormones. Prescribed hormones depend on which particular hormones are deficient or out of balance. When oligomenorrhea is associated with an eating disorder or the female athlete triad, the underlying condition must be treated. Consultation with a psychiatrist and nutritionist is usually necessary to manage an eating disorder. Female athletes may require physical therapy or rehabilitation as well.

Alternative treatment

As with conventional medicial treatments, alternative treatments are based on the cause of the condition. If a hormonal imbalance is revealed by laboratory testing, hormone replacements that are more "natural" for the body (including tri-estrogen and natural progesterone) are recommended. Glandular therapy can assist in bringing about a balance in the glands involved in the reproductive cycle, including the hypothalmus, pituitary, thyroid, ovarian, and adrenal glands. Since homeopathy and acupuncture work on deep, energetic levels to rebalance the body, these two modalities may be helpful in treating oligomenorrhea. Western and Chinese herbal medicines also can be very effective. Herbs used to treat oligomenorrhea include dong quai (Angelica sinensis), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), and chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus). Herbal preparations used to bring on the menstrual period are known as emmenagogues. For some women, meditation, guided imagery, and visualization can play a key role in the treatment of oligomenorrhea by relieving emotional stress.
Diet and adequate nutrition, including adequate protein, essential fatty acids, whole grains, and fresh fruits and vegetables, are important for every woman, especially if deficiencies are present or if she regularly exercises very strenuously. Female athletes at the high school or college level should consult a nutritionist to make sure that they are eating a well-balanced diet that is adequate to maintain a healthy weight for their height. Girls participating in dance or in sports that emphasize weight control or a slender body type (gymnastics, track and field, swimming, and cheerleading) are at higher risk of developing eating disorders than those that are involved in such sports as softball, weight lifting, or basketball. In some cases the athlete may be given calcium or vitamin D supplements to lower the risk of osteoporosis.
Many women, including those with PCOS, are successfully treated with hormones for oligomenorrhea. They have more frequent periods and begin ovulating during their menstrual cycle, restoring their fertility.
For women who do not respond to hormones or who continue to have an underlying condition that causes oligomenorrhea, the outlook is less positive. Women who have oligomenorrhea may have difficulty conceiving children and may receive fertility drugs. The absence of adequate estrogen increases risk for bone loss (osteoporosis) and cardiovascular disease. Women who do not have regular periods also are more likely to develop uterine cancer. Oligomenorrhea can become amenorrhea at any time, increasing the chance of having these complications.

Prevention

Oligomenorrhea is preventable only in women whose low body fat to weight ratio is keeping them from maintaining a regular menstrual cycle. Adequate nutrition and a less vigorous training schedules will normally prevent oligomenorrhea. When oligomenorrhea is caused by hormonal factors, it is not preventable, but it is often treatable.

Key terms

Anorexia nervosa — A disorder of the mind and body in which people starve themselves in a desire to be thin, despite being of normal or below normal body weight for their size and age.
Cyst — An abnormal sac containing fluid or semisolid material.
Emmenagogue — A medication or herbal preparation given to bring on a woman's menstrual period.
Female athlete triad — A combination of disorders frequently found in female athletes that includes disordered eating, osteoporosis, and oligo- or amenorrhea. The triad was first officially named in 1993.
Osteoporosis — The excessive loss of calcium from the bones, causing the bones to become fragile and break easily. Women who are not menstruating are especially vulnerable to this condition because estrogen, a hormone that protects bones against calcium loss, decreases drastically after menopause.

Resources

Books

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., revised. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD, editors. "Menstrual Abnormalities and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding." Section 18, Chapter 235 In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.
Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. The Best Alternative Medicine, Part II, "CAM Therapies for Specific Conditions: Menstrual Symptoms, Menopause, and PMS." New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

Periodicals

Barrow, Boone, MD. "Female Athlete Triad." eMedicine June 17, 2004. http://www.emedicine.com/sports/topic163.htm.
Chandran, Latha, MBBS, MPH. "Menstruation Disorders." eMedicine August 9, 2004. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2781.htm.
Hopkinson, R. A., and J. Lock. "Athletics, Perfectionism, and Disordered Eating." Eating and Weight Disorders 9 (June 2004): 99-106.
Klentrou, P., and M. Plyley. "Onset of Puberty, Menstrual Frequency, and Body Fat in Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts Compared with Normal Controls." British Journal of Sports Medicine 37 (December 2003): 490-494.
Milsom, S. R., M. C. Sowter, M. A. Carter, et al. "LH Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Have Modern Assays Made Them Irrelevant?" BJOG 110 (August 2003): 760-764.
Nelson, Lawrence M., MD, Vladimir Bakalov, MD, and Carmen Pastor, MD. "Amenorrhea." eMedicine August 9, 2004. http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic117.htm.
Suliman, A. M., T. P. Smith, J. Gibney, and T. J. McKenna. "Frequent Misdiagnosis and Mismanagement of Hyperprolactinemic Patients Before the Introduction of Macroprolactin Screening: Application of a New Strict Laboratory Definition of Macroprolactinemia." Clinical Chemistry 49 (September 2003): 1504-1509.
Webber, L. J., S. Stubbs, J. Stark, et al. "Formation and Early Development of Follicles in the Polycystic Ovary." Lancet 362 (September 27, 2003): 1017-1021.

Organizations

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007. (202) 966-7300. Fax: (202) 966-2891. http://www.aacap.org.
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). 401 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202-3233. (317) 637-9200. Fax: (317) 634-7817. http://www.acsm.org.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association. P.O. Box 80517, Portland, OR 7280. (877) 775-7267. http://www.pcosupport.org.

Other

Clinical Research Bulletin. vol. 1, no. 14. 〈http://www.herbsinfo.com〉.

oligomenorrhea

 [ol″ĭ-go-men″o-re´ah]
scanty or infrequent menstruation.

ol·i·go·men·or·rhe·a

(ol'i-gō-men'ō-rē'ă), Do not confuse this word with hypomenorrhea.
Scanty menstruation.
[oligo- + menorrhea]

oligomenorrhea

/ol·i·go·men·or·rhea/ (-men″o-re´ah) abnormally infrequent menstruation.

oligomenorrhea

[-men′ôrē′ə]
Etymology: Gk, oligos + L, men, month, rhoia, flow
abnormally light or reduced menstruation. Also spelled oligomenorrhoea. oligomenorrheic, adj.

oligomenorrhea

Gynecology Scant menstruation; less than usual menses; menstrual periodicity of 38 to 90 days

ol·i·go·men·or·rhe·a

(ol'i-gō-men-ōr-ē'ă)
Scanty menstruation.
Synonym(s): oligomenorrhoea.

oligomenorrhea (·liˈ·g·meˈ·nō·rēˑ·),

n disorder marked by irregular menstrual periods.

ol·i·go·men·or·rhe·a

(ol'i-gō-men-ōr-ē'ă)
Scanty menstruation.
Synonym(s): oligomenorrhoea.

oligomenorrhea (ol´igōmen´ərē´ə),

n a condition in which a woman experiences fewer menstrual cycles than normal because each cycle lasts longer than 45 days.
References in periodicals archive ?
The ITM physicians believe that patiens with oligomenorrhea shoud be treated to avoid complications that may occure because of cessation of menstrual bleeding as a major excretory pathway [10]
In one trial involving eight women with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea, the formula was given for 2 to 8 weeks.
Work-up detected polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in 61% of patients with oligomenorrhea, compared with 48% of patients with secondary amernorrhea, a significant difference, Dr.
Key Words: uterine bleeding, anovulation, menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea
Ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with oligomenorrhea treated with metformin in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial.
The 16-year-old female patient had a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome, oligomenorrhea, and vitamin D deficiency and a suspected urinary tract infection.
Post partum, she lactated normally and resumed menstrual cycles three months later, but developed oligomenorrhea.
Atypical antipsychotics vary in their affinity for the D2 DA receptor and in their propensity to cause hyperprolactinemia, which is characterized by amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in women of reproductive age, breast enlargement or engorgement in women and men, galactorrhea, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, failure to enter or progress through puberty, and possibly hirsutism in women.
In fact, PCOS occurs in 85 to 90% of women with oligomenorrhea and in 30 to 40% of women with amenorrhea.
Approximately, 30% of patients had oligomenorrhea and 70% had evidence of hyperandrogenism as hirsutism and acne.
This leads to reduced LH surge and associated amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea.
7 pmol/L) in patients with regular menses, oligomenorrhea (>6 cycles longer than 36 days in the previous year), or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation for 3 consecutive months).