obstructive nephropathy


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nephropathy

 [nĕ-frop´ah-the]
1. any disease of the kidneys. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
2. any disease of the kidneys; see also nephritis. Called also nephrosis. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
AIDS nephropathy former name for HIV-associated nephropathy.
analgesic nephropathy interstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis, seen in patients with a history of abuse of analgesics such as aspirin or acetaminophen alone or in combination.
diabetic nephropathy the nephropathy that commonly accompanies later stages of diabetes mellitus; it begins with hyperfiltration, renal hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and hypertension; in time proteinuria develops, with other signs of decreasing function leading to end-stage renal disease.
gouty nephropathy any of a group of chronic kidney diseases associated with the abnormal production and excretion of uric acid.
heavy metal nephropathy the kidney damage resulting from any of various forms of heavy metal poisoning, usually in the form of tubulointerstitial nephritis. The most common metals involved are cadmium, lead, and mercury.
HIV-associated nephropathy renal pathology in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, similar to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with proteinuria, enlarged kidneys, and dilated tubules containing proteinaceous casts; it may progress to end-stage renal disease within weeks.
hypokalemic nephropathy nephropathy with hypokalemia, interstitial nephritis, swelling and vacuolization of proximal renal tubules, and progressive renal failure, resulting from conditions such as oncotic overloading of the kidney filtration mechanisms by sugars. See also potassium-losing nephropathy.
IgA nephropathy a chronic form marked by hematuria and proteinuria and by deposits of IgA immunoglobulin in the mesangial areas of the renal glomeruli, with subsequent reactive hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Called also Berger's disease and IgA glomerulonephritis.
ischemic nephropathy nephropathy resulting from partial or complete obstruction of a renal artery with ischemia, accompanied by a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration rate.
lead nephropathy the kidney damage that accompanies lead poisoning; lead deposits appear in the epithelium of the proximal tubules and as nuclear inclusions in cells. In time this leads to tubulointerstitial nephritis with chronic renal failure and other symptoms.
membranous nephropathy membranous glomerulonephritis.
minimal change nephropathy minimal change disease.
obstructive nephropathy nephropathy caused by obstruction of the urinary tract (usually the ureter), with hydronephrosis, slowing of the glomerular filtration rate, and tubular abnormalities.
potassium-losing nephropathy hypokalemic nephropathy after persistent potassium loss; it may be seen in metabolic alkalosis, adrenocortical hormone excess, or in intrinsic renal disease such as renal tubular acidosis or hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular cells. Called also potassium-losing nephritis.
reflux nephropathy childhood pyelonephritis in which the renal scarring results from vesicoureteric reflux, with radiological appearance of intrarenal reflux.
salt-losing nephropathy intrinsic renal disease causing abnormal urinary sodium loss in persons ingesting normal amounts of sodium chloride, with vomiting, dehydration, and vascular collapse. Called also salt-losing nephritis.
urate nephropathy (uric acid nephropathy) any of a group of kidney diseases occurring in patients with hyperuricemia, including an acute form, a chronic form (gouty nephropathy), and nephrolithiasis with formation of uric acid calculi.

obstructive nephropathy

nephropathy caused by obstruction of the urinary tract (usually the ureter), with hydronephrosis, slowing of the glomerular filtration rate, and tubular abnormalities.

obstructive nephropathy

Kidney damage resulting from the blockage of urinary blood flow out of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder, e.g. as a result of prostatic hyperplasia, or a tumor compressing urinary outflow. It can be identified by bladder scanning, which will reveal a large amount of retained urine or by ultrasonography of the kidneys, which will show hydronephrosis.
See also: nephropathy
References in periodicals archive ?
The kidney with obstructive nephropathy shows diffuse thinning of the renal parenchyma of variable degrees (sometimes to a few millimeters), loss of corticomedullary junction landmark, blunting or loss of renal papillae, and dilatation of the pyelocaliceal system (hydronephrosis) and thickening of its wall (Figure 2, A).
It is characterized by neutrophil infiltration against the background of chronic obstructive nephropathy, which forms gross or microscopic abscesses involving the tubules, interstitium, and pyelocaliceal system, but usually spares blood vessels and glomeruli (Figure 4).
We have seen a few cases of acute and severe bleeding complicating obstructive nephropathy although there are no published reports of this complication.
This article reviews the pathophysiology of obstructive uropathy leading to obstructive nephropathy.
Obstructive nephropathy can lead to kidney failure within a few weeks or a few years.
Numerous biochemical mediators are released as the obstructive nephropathy causes mechanical damage to renal tissue (see Figure 1).
Although numerous biochemicals are involved in the process, one specific substance, TGF-[beta], is important in this phase and many other aspects of obstructive nephropathy (Kaneto, Morrissey, & Klahr, 1993; Klahr & Morrissey, 1998; Pimental, Sundell, & Wang, 1995).
Angiotensin II exacerbates obstructive nephropathy by increasing TGF-[beta], which promotes both fibrosis (Klahr, Ishidoya, & Morrissey, 1995) and nitric oxide degradation (Truong et al.
Obstructive nephropathy following relief of the obstruction.
Since the test uses intravenous contrast material, a potential nephrotoxic substance to illuminate the renal system, the usefulness of the test for patients already suspected of having obstructive nephropathy is questionable (Koelliker & Cronan, 1997).
The collaborative management of obstructive nephropathy involves primary care providers, nephrologists, urologists, and both advanced practice and staff nurses.
The most important aspect of treating a patient with obstructive nephropathy is to expeditiously relieve the obstruction.

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