nitazoxanide


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nitazoxanide

(nit-a-zox-a-nide) ,

Alinia

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiprotozoals
Pharmacologic: benzamides
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Treatment of diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.Not effective for C. Parvum diarrhea in HIV-infected patients.

Action

Interferes with electron transfer reaction necessary for anaerobic energy metabolism of offending organisms.

Therapeutic effects

Antiprotozoal action resulting in decreased diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly converted to tizoxanide which is the active metabolite; tizoxanide is further metabolized.
Distribution: Unknown.
Protein Binding: >99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Tizoxanide—excreted in urine, bile and feces; inactive metabolites excreted in urine, bile and feces.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknown†1–4 hr12 hr
†Onset of antidiarrheal activity is 24–48 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in: Hepatic and/or renal impairment; Diabetics (contains 1.48 g sucrose/5 mL); Children <1 pregnancy or lactation (safety not established).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • yellow eye discoloration

Gastrointestinal

  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting

Genitourinary

  • discolored urine

Dermatologic

  • pruritus
  • sweating

Miscellaneous

  • fever

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

May interact with other highly protein-bound drugs by competing for binding sites.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults and children ≥ 12 yr) 500 mg every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 4–11 yr) 200 mg (10 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 1–4 yr) 100 mg (5 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.

Availability

Tablets: 500 mg
Oral suspensionstrawberry: 100 mg/5 mL in 60 mL bottle

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds before and during therapy.
  • Assess fluid and electrolyte balance and skin turgor for dehydration.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Diarrhea (Indications)

Implementation

  • Oral: Administer with food. Keep container tightly closed and shake well before each administration. Suspension may be stored at room temperature for 7 days; discard unused portion.
    • Pedi: Tablets contain more than pediatric dose; use solution for patients ≤12 years.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Explain to parents administration of medication and monitoring of condition.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Resolution of symptoms: no watery stools, no more than 2 soft stools within the past 24 hr and no unformed stools within the past 48 hr.

nitazoxanide

an antiprotozoal agent used to treat diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia.

nitazoxanide

A synthetic salicylamide derivative and antiprotozoal that is active against Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia infection, and which appears to also have activity against hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

nitazoxanide

A thiazolide anti-infective drug used to treat diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica , Blastocystis hominis , Clostridium difficile and rotavirus.
References in periodicals archive ?
These include praziquantel, ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate, albendazole, nitazoxanide, and iodoquinol.
Of these, nitazoxanide led to cure for 1 (25%); subsequent treatment with quinacrine led to cure for 2, and treatment with paromomycin led to cure for the other.
Alinia Tablets and Alinia for Oral Suspension are contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity to nitazoxanide or any other ingredient in the formulations.
He was then treated with metronidazole, nitazoxanide, and octreotide with control of the diarrhea.
There are some promising reports with triple therapy using interferon, ribavirin, plus nitazoxanide "an anti-protozoal drug" or triple therapy with interferon, ribavirin, plus one of the protease inhibitors such as Telaprevir or Boceprevir; and or the addition of the antiviral agent Silibinin.
difficile also shows good in vitro susceptibility to various antimicrobials, such as rifaximin, ramoplanin and nitazoxanide and these could be used in future trials.
nitazoxanide (500 mg twice per day): this drug blocks anaerobic metabolic pathways of micro-organisms and is effective against C.
Vaginal nitazoxanide was just as effective as vaginal clindamycin at clearing bacterial vaginosis, but imparted a significantly lower risk of post-treatment candidiasis in a randomized trial of 100 women.
Nitazoxanide has provided some encouraging results in the management of cryptosporidial diarrhea in immunocompetent patients and has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent children under 12 years of age.
Nitazoxanide was safe and effective for the treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Entamoeba dispar, reported Dr.
Nitazoxanide (Alinia) is a newer medication in the parasite community and in the US; it is approved for diarrhea caused by Giardia and Cryptosporidium parvum in children.