nicotine


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nicotine

 [nik´o-tēn, nik´o-tin]
a very poisonous alkaloid that in its pure state is a colorless, pungent, oily liquid, having an acrid burning taste. It is a constituent of tobacco, and is also produced synthetically. It is administered orally, intranasally, or by inhalation as an aid to smoking cessation. In water solution, it is sometimes used as an insecticide and plant spray.

Although nicotine is highly toxic, the amount inhaled while smoking tobacco is too small to cause death. The nicotine in tobacco can, however, cause indigestion and increase in blood pressure, and dull the appetite. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor. Researchers link smoking with heart disease, lung cancer, and other diseases.
nicotine poisoning poisoning by nicotine, such as in children who eat cigarettes, workers who handle wet tobacco leaves, or persons who overuse nicotine gums or patches. Symptoms include stimulation followed by depression of the central and autonomic nervous systems and occasionally death due to respiratory paralysis. Called also nicotinism.
nicotine polacrilex nicotine bound to a cation exchange resin; used in nicotine chewing gum as an aid to smoking cessation.

nic·o·tine

(nik'ō-tēn),
A poisonous volatile alkaloid derived from tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco; it first stimulates (small doses), then depresses (large doses) at autonomic ganglia and myoneural junctions. Its principal urinary metabolite is cotinine. Nicotine is an important tool in physiologic and pharmacologic investigation, is used as an insecticide and fumigant, and forms salts with most acids.
See also: tobacco.
[Nicotiana, genus name of botanical source, + - ine]

Nicotine in inhaled tobacco smoke or in smokeless tobacco applied to buccal or nasal mucosa enters the circulation within seconds, causing an increase in heart rate, ventricular stroke volume, and myocardial oxygen consumption, as well as euphoria, heightened alertness, and a sense of relaxation. Nicotine use is powerfully addictive, readily leading to habituation, tolerance, and dependency. Withdrawal from nicotine causes restlessness, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and craving for nicotine. Addiction to nicotine is the reason for most tobacco use and is thus directly responsible for the resulting morbidity and mortality.

nicotine

/nic·o·tine/ (nik´o-tēn) (nik´o-tin) a very poisonous alkaloid, obtained from tobacco or produced synthetically; used as an agricultural insecticide, and as an aid to smoking cessation.
nicotine polacrilex  nicotine bound to a cation exchange resin; used in nicotine chewing gum as an aid to smoking cessation.

nicotine

(nĭk′ə-tēn′)
n.
A toxic alkaloid, C10H14N2, that is found in the tobacco plant, constitutes the primary addictive substance in tobacco products, and acts as a stimulant at low doses.

nicotine

[nik′ətēn]
Etymology: Jean Nicot de Villemain, French ambassador to Portugal, 1530-1600
a colorless, rapidly acting toxic substance in tobacco that is one of the major contributors to the ill effects of smoking. It is used as an insecticide in agriculture and as a parasiticide in veterinary medicine. Ingestion of large amounts causes salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, vertigo, slowing of the heartbeat, and, in acute cases, paralysis of respiratory muscles.

nicotine

Substance abuse A colorless pyridine alkaloid in tobacco Routes Inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, either accidental or suicidal Clinical Transient CNS stimulation followed by depression or paralysis, nausea, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, cold sweats, headache, vertigo, confusion, incoordination, ↓ pulse rate, dyspnea with possible respiratory paralysis and intense vagal stimulation, which may cause cardiac arrest; death occurs 1-4 hrs after ingesting a fatal adult dose–> 60 mg Treatment Emesis, gastric lavage, atropine–Nicotiana tabacum stimulates cholinergic receptors. See Cigarette, Conicotine, Nicotine gum, Passive smoking, Smokeless tobacco, Smoking, Tobacco.

nic·o·tine

(nikŏ-tēn)
A poisonous volatile alkaloid derived from tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco; it first stimulates (small doses), then depresses (large doses) at autonomic ganglia and myoneural junctions. It is an important tool in physiologic and pharmacologic investigation; also used as an insecticide and fumigant.
[Nicotiana, genus name of botanic source, + -ine]

nicotine

A highly poisonous alkaloid drug derived from the leaves of the tobacco plants Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica . Large doses are fatal. Very small dose are obtained by inhaling the smoke from burning tobacco and this is done for the sake of the desired slight stimulant and mood-elevating effect and to alleviate nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine increases the heart rate and raises the blood pressure by narrowing small arteries. This effect can be dangerous. Nicotine, in the doses acquired by smokers, is comparatively harmless but the other constituents of tobacco smoke are responsible for an enormous burden of human disease. Nicotine is dispensed in the form of dummy cigarettes, skin patches and chewing gum so that people who wish to stop smoking may still, for a time, continue to enjoy the perceived advantages. The drug is also used as an insecticide.

nicotine

an alkaloid derived from tobacco.

Nicotine

A colorless, oily chemical found in tobacco that makes people physically dependent on smoking. It is poisonous in large doses.

nicotine

poisonous, volatile alkaloid derived from tobacco; a powerful vasoconstrictor; it promotes hypertension

nicotine

An alkaloid with pharmacological actions similar to those of acetylcholine at autonomic ganglia and skeletal neuromuscular junctions. See acetylcholine; cholinergic.

nic·o·tine

(nikŏ-tēn)
A poisonous volatile alkaloid derived from tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and responsible for many of its effects; it first stimulates (small doses), then depresses (large doses) at autonomic ganglia and myoneural junctions; an important tool in physiologic and pharmacologic investigation; used as an insecticide and fumigant.

nicotine,

n a poisonous alkaloid found in tobacco and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco. It is first a stimulant (small doses) and then a depressant (larger doses). It is highly addictive.
nicotine gum,
n brand name: Nicorette (nicotine polacrilex); an over-the-counter chewable product containing the chemical nicotine. It is used for tobacco cessation.
nicotine inhaler,
n a prescription inhalation device consisting of a mouthpiece into which a cartridge is inserted to deliver nicotine in gradually diminishing doses over time. It is used for tobacco cessation.
nicotine lozenge,
n an over-the-counter dissoluble tablet that releases nicotine. It is used for tobacco cessation.
nicotine nasal spray,
n a prescription nicotine-containing liquid that the user self-administers through the nose. It is used for tobacco cessation.
nicotine patch (nicotine transdermal system),
n brand names: Habitrol, Nicoderm, Nicotrol, ProStep; an over-the-counter press-on patch that releases nicotine slowly into the body through the skin. It is used for tobacco cessation.
nicotine replacement therapy,
n a tobacco cessation method intended to reduce nicotine cravings and ease the symptoms of withdrawal by substituting another source of nicotine, such as a specially formulated lozenge, gum, nasal spray, inhalant, or skin patch for tobacco products.

nicotine

a very poisonous piperidine alkaloid that in its pure state is a colorless, pungent, oily liquid, having an acrid burning taste. It is a constituent of tobacco and is produced synthetically.

nicotine sulfate
has been used as an anthelmintic but is very poisonous. Signs are dyspnea, tremor and convulsions. Death is due to respiratory paralysis. Has also been used as an insecticide and acaricide. It was once used against sheep scab and is still used against poultry lice.

Patient discussion about nicotine

Q. nicotine patch does anyone know if you can use the patch for smokeless tobacco users,that dont smoke,and how well does it work,what are the side effects,i"ve been using smokeless tobacco for 24 years and would like to stop,tried going cold turkey,but it didnt work,my dr. said i should try the patch,but couldnt tell me if it would work or not.

A. There is really no reason you couldn't try the patch. The problem would be with what dose to start. Usually if people smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day they start with the 21mg but I am not sure how smokeless tobacco relates to cigarettes. Your best bet may be to try the gum as you chew it and then place it between you cheek and gum for a while, similar to dip.

More discussions about nicotine
References in periodicals archive ?
Nicotine nasal spray delivers a dose of nicotine through your nose.
In the study, adolescent laboratory rats increased their intake of nicotine when it was combined with acetaldehyde.
After reviewing human and animal studies that demonstrate how alcohol and nicotine interact in producing their rewarding effects, the article presents the evidence that a pathway in the brain--the mesolimbic dopamine system--participates in this interaction.
Airflow through the system was set for 30 changes per hour, and samples were collected daily to determine the concentrations of total suspended particulates, nicotine (average, 162 [micro]/[m.
The antidiuretic effects of nicotine were first identified in the 1940s.
Regarding concerns about weight gain, all nicotine replacement therapies delay but do not prevent weight gain.
Merely by its mode of action, nicotine is known to stimulate the release of many neurotransmitters and one of these is endorphins.
Although early results indicate that nicotine can keep older individuals from gaining weight like the control group does, Winzer-Serhan hasn't yet determined whether this lower body mass index translates into less degeneration of the brain.
Conclusion: The growth inhibitory effects of nicotine on A549 cells were found to be dose-dependent.
Nicotine may be delivered into the body in a number of different ways.
Reduced-nicotine cigarettes differ from "light" cigarettes in that the latter don't actually reduce the nicotine content of the tobacco but instead increase ventilation of the cigarette--a strategy that is often circumvented by smokers who cover the ventilation holes or increase the number of cigarettes they smoke, said Eric C.
Moreover, study participants who smoked very-low-nicotine cigarettes for the 6-week study were twice as likely to report that they attempted to quit 1 month later, compared with participants who smoked their usual brand or control cigarettes that had the usual nicotine content.

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