The real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was measured with the Synergy Brands method, including the genes such as nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), neurotrophic factor 3 (NTF3), neurotrophic factor 4/5 (NTF4/5), and glyceraldehydes phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the related primers are shown in [Table 1].
These compounds elicit mild increases in energy expenditure that result in strengthening cellular survival similar to the positive effects seen with fasting and exercise, and also induce an important neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor, involved in cognition and neural growth.
9) Retinal glial cells can produce several neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) that have neuroprotective effects under pathological conditions.
The main mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid enhance the expression of BDNF while the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents on neurotrophic factor expression remain less well defined.
The study, which suggested that acupuncture protects brain neurons against injury with heroin relapse by promoting brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression, was published in the Neural Regeneration Research.