Adapted from IUSG and SUN classifications (56) Anatomical Primary site of Examples classification inflammation of uveitis Anterior Anterior chamber Iritis Iridocyclitis uveitis Iris and ciliary body Intermediate Vitreous Pars plana Pars planitis uveitis Peripheral retina Posterior Fundus posterior to Retinitis Choroiditis uveitis the vitreous face Vasculitis Retina Choroid Neuroretinitis
Optic disc Panuveitis Entire uveal tract and retina Table 2 Clinical classification of uveitis.
Infection may result in bacteremia (presence of bacteria in the blood), myocarditis (inflammation of the middle layer of the heart wall), peliosis hepatis (a vascular condition which results in blood-filled sacs in the liver), neuroretinitis
(inflammation of the neural retina and optic nerve), bacillary angiomatosis (a proliferation of blood vessels leading to tumorlike masses), enlarged lymph nodes, and fevers.
This case and a review of the literature support the idea of Bartonella species being considered one of the usual suspects in neuroretinitis
This initial event may be difficult to separate from CIS, but suggestive features include an encephalopathy, bilateral visual impairment, neuroretinitis
or complete transverse myelopathy.
In humans, the clinical features of alariosis caused by infections with the North American species of Alaria vary from mild and asymptomatic to moderate with respiratory or cutaneous signs (2) or neuroretinitis
(3), to severe-to-lethal anaphylactic shock caused by larva migrans (4,5).
6) Indeed, in patients with AIDS there is a 3-8% prevalence of neuro-ophthalmic diseases including eye movement disorders, cranial nerve palsies, neuroretinitis
, retrobulbar optic neuropathy, anterior optic neuropathy, papilloedema, visual field defects, cortical blindness, optic atrophy and optic neuritis.
The virus that Billy contracted, bilateral neuroretinitis
, caused nerve damage at the back of both of his eyes.
grahamii, which was found to cause neuroretinitis
Other atypical clinical manifestations in immunocompetent patients include disseminated CSD with hepatosplenic abscesses, endocarditis, Leber stellate neuroretinitis
, and CSD encephalopathy.
grahamii has been associated with neuroretinitis
and ocular artery thrombosis in humans (9,10).
2,3) Posterior segment manifestations include central serous retinopathy, uveitis, choroiditis, exudative retinal detachment, ischemic optic neuropathy, neuroretinitis
, and vasculitis.
Occasionally, the infection may have an atypical manifestation, such as endocarditis, encephalopathy, neuroretinitis
, or systemic CSD with hepatic and splenic granuloma (1).