neuromuscular blockade


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blockade

 [blok-ād´]
1. in pharmacology, the blocking of the effect of a neurotransmitter or hormone by a drug.
2. in histochemistry, a chemical reaction that modifies certain chemical groups and blocks a specific staining method.
adrenergic blockade selective inhibition of the response to sympathetic impulses transmitted by epinephrine or norepinephrine at alpha or beta receptor sites of an effector organ or postganglionic adrenergic neuron. See also adrenergic blocking agent.
cholinergic blockade selective inhibition of cholinergic nerve impulses at autonomic ganglionic synapses, postganglionic parasympathetic effectors, or neuromuscular junctions. See also cholinergic blocking agent.
ganglionic blockade inhibition by drugs of nerve impulse transmission at autonomic ganglionic synapses; see also ganglionic blocking agent.
narcotic blockade inhibition of the euphoric effects of narcotic drugs by the use of other drugs, such as methadone, in the treatment of addiction.
neuromuscular blockade a failure in neuromuscular transmission that can be induced pharmacologically or result from any of various disturbances at the myoneural junction. See also neuromuscular blocking agent.
sympathetic blockade block of nerve impulse transmission between a preganglionic sympathetic fiber and the ganglion cell.

neuromuscular blockade

the inhibition of a muscular contraction activated by the nervous system, possibly resulting in muscle weakness or paralysis.

neuromuscular blockade

Neurology The partial or complete inhibition of motor activity at a neuromuscular junction Etiology
1. Reduction of post-synaptic receptors–eg, myasthenia gravis;.
2. Defective acetylcholine release from storage vesicles–eg, botulism, myasthenia, or Eaton-Lambert syndrome;.
3. Competition for binding sites, either pharmacologic blockade–eg, neostigmine, edrophonium, or toxins–eg, organophosphate insecticides. See Neuromuscular junction.

neu·ro·mus·cu·lar block·ade

(nūr'ō-mŭs'kyū-lăr blok-ād')
The blockage of transmission through the myoneural junction at nicotinic receptors, decreasing skeletal muscle tone and resulting in muscle weakness and/or paralysis.

neuromuscular

pertaining to nerve terminations in muscles.

neuromuscular blockade
deliberate paralysis of the motor end-plates; important in veterinary surgery for immobilization. It is effected by the use of competitive (non-depolarizing) agents such as d-tubocurarine, and depolarizing agents such as succinylcholine.
neuromuscular blocking agents
drugs capable of producing neuromuscular blockade (above).
neuromuscular junction
the point of junction of a nerve fiber with the muscle that it innervates. It includes an area of folded sarcolemma of the muscle fiber, and an axon terminal located in the folds and containing vesicles of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Called also myoneural junction.
neuromuscular junction disease
examples are tick paralysis, botulism, myasthenia gravis.
neuromuscular paralysis
paralysis caused by malfunction at the neuromuscular junction, e.g. after administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent. The paralysis may be flaccid or spastic.
phase-II neuromuscular block
alteration of the end-plate threshold to depolarization by acetylcholine following prolonged use of a depolarization agent such as succinylcholine.
neuromuscular spindle
consists of muscle fiber, afferent and efferent nerve endings and connective tissue; maintains muscle tone via stretch reflex mediated through two neurons at spinal cord level.
neuromuscular transmission
release of acetylcholine from the nerve ending and activation of the receptors in the muscle end-plate.
References in periodicals archive ?
As Donati said, "Faced with a patient who is hypoxemic, has airway obstruction or is not comfortable in the PACU, most anesthesiologists do not spontaneously think of residual neuromuscular blockade as a likely cause" (6).
Chi square test was used to compare the incidence and severity of residual neuromuscular blockade between the two groups.
Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in pediatric and adult surgical patients.
Vecuronium neuromuscular blockade at the diaphragm, the orbicularis oculi, and adductor pollicis muscles.
Following reversal of the neuromuscular blockade, this patient commenced spontaneous movement which hindered surgical access to the intended tracheostomy site.
During 5% sevoflurane induction, the addition of potent short-acting opioids has been used to facilitate tracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade in paediatric patients.
As anaesthesia developed as a specialty with the introduction of neuromuscular blockade and endotracheal intubation, anaesthetists rapidly became the experts in airway management.
rocuroninm (ORG9426) neuromuscular blockade at adductor muscles of larynx and adductor pollicis in humans.
The authors correctly state that patients with myotonic dystrophy or dystrophia myotonica (DM) are at increased risk of residual neuromuscular blockade (RNMB).
intravenous pancuronium have demonstrated that onset of neuromuscular blockade occurred relatively slowly after subcutaneous administration with a delayed onset probably the result of slow systemic absorption of drug from subcutaneous site to the plasma.
Sugammadex, in a dose of 16 mg/kg, has been shown in clinical studies to be effective for the immediate reversal of neuromuscular blockade after intubating doses (1 to 1.