neuroleptic


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Related to neuroleptic: Neuroleptic drugs

neuroleptic

 [noor″o-lep´tik]
a term coined to refer to the effects on cognition and behavior of the original antipsychotic agents, which produced a state of apathy, lack of initiative, and limited range of emotion and in psychotic patients caused a reduction in confusion and agitation and normalization of psychomotor activity. The term is still used to refer to agents, such as droperidol, used to produce such effects as part of anesthesia or analgesia; however, it is outdated as a synonym for antipsychotic agents because newer agents do not necessarily have such effects.
neuroleptic malignant syndrome a rare but dramatic condition that occurs in severely ill patients being treated with high-potency antipsychotics (neuroleptics); symptoms include diaphoresis, muscle rigidity, and hyperpyrexia. It is believed to be caused by dopamine blockade in the hypothalamus.

neu·ro·lep·tic

(nū'rō-lep'tik),
Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivates and the dihydroindolones. Synonym(s): neuroleptic agent
See also: antipsychotic agent.
[neuro- + G. lēpsis, taking hold]

neuroleptic

/neu·ro·lep·tic/ (-lep´tik) originally, referring to the effects on cognition and behavior of the first antipsychotic agents: a state of apathy, lack of initiative, and limited range of emotion, and in psychotic patients, reduction in confusion and agitation and normalization of psychomotor activity. It is still used for agents (e.g., droperidol) producing such effects as part of anesthesia or analgesia, but is outdated as a synonym for antipsychotic agents because newer agents do not necessarily have such effects.

neuroleptic

(no͝or′ə-lĕp′tĭk, nyo͝or′-)
n.
An antipsychotic or anesthetic drug that causes apathy and decreased affect.

neu′ro·lep′tic adj.

neuroleptic

[-lep′tik]
Etymology: Gk, neuron + lepsis, seizure
1 pertaining to neurolepsis.
2 See neuroleptic drug.

antipsychotic

adjective Referring to an antipsychotic drug.

noun Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes.
 
Agents
Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines.
 
Main types of antipsychotics
Typical and atypical, which differ in their side/adverse effects.
 
Indications
Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders; acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes (during induction of lithium therapy), control of movement disorders (in Huntington’s disease), Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting (by blocking the medulla’s chemoreceptor trigger zone).
 
Adverse effects
Extrapyramidal effects (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism), tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects (orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation) are due to blocking of histaminic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.

neuroleptic

Psychiatry An agent used to treat psychotic illnesses–eg, obsessive-compulsive disorder

neu·ro·lep·tic

(nūr'ō-lep'tik)
1. Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivatives and the dihydroindolones.
See also: antipsychotic agent
Synonym(s): neuroleptic agent.
2. Denoting a condition similar to that produced by such an agent.
[neuro- + G. lēpsis, taking hold]

neuroleptic

1. Capable of bringing about emotional quietening without impairing consciousness. Capable of modifying abnormal psychotic behaviour.
2. Any drug having these effects.

Neuroleptic

Another name for older antipsychotic medications, such as haloperidol. The term does not apply to such newer atypical agents as clozapine (Clozaril).

neuroleptic

1. modifying psychotic behavior.
2. any drug that favorably modifies psychotic clinical signs; the main categories of neuroleptics include the phenothiazines, butyrophenones and thioxanthenes. Called also antipsychotic and major tranquilizer.
Drugs of this type stabilize mood and reduce anxiety, tension and hyperactivity. They are also effective in helping to control agitation and aggressiveness.
References in periodicals archive ?
The patients on lorazepam showed no improvement in delirium-associated confusion and had more adverse effects than did the patients who received one of the neuroleptics (Am.
Atypical neuroleptics, such as risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine may offer advantages.
Clinicians should also explore "drug holidays" for patients to see if tardive dyskinesia has developed and curtail chronic neuroleptic use, he argues.
Neuroleptics such as phenothiazine, haloperidol, or risperidone may worsen the patient's motor impairment.
Experimeter and patient expectations about the time it takes neuroleptics to work may have contributed to the contrasting findings of shorter and longer studies, according to Keck and his colleagues.
In addition to the limited overall scientific evidence about the interaction of neuroleptic medication and behavioral treatment for severe problem behavior, there is almost no evidence that, in practice, primary health-care physicians or related prescription-privileged providers consider context and behavioral function during medication trials for problem behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities.
In 1996, risperidone's sales topped $500 million, a sum greater than that spent on all other neuroleptics combined.
Depression in patients with schizophrenia has been shown to be associated with a family history of depression, early parenteral loss, higher doses of depot neuroleptics, even though no significant gender difference has been shown (8-10).
Lower-dose therapy with traditional neuroleptics in chronically hospitalized schizophrenic patients.
Many of our members make the difficult choice to take a neuroleptic despite hazards.
Zoloft isn't a neuroleptic (anti-psychotic); it is an anti-depressant.
One case report details oculogyric crisis accompanied by torticollis 26 hours following IM administration of haloperidol lactate in a 22-year-old woman enrolled in a study of the effects of neuroleptic medications on stable patients with schizophrenia.