Additionally, GAS produces extracellular enzymes including streptokinase (Ska), proteinases, hyaluronidase, nucleases, and neuroaminidase
, and toxins such as streptolysins, pyrogenic exotoxins (Spe), and streptococcal superantigens, some of which induce fever and shock.
Should we recommend neuroaminidase
inhibitors for influenza?
beta]-galactosidase activity was found to be normal in the sample which was sent for enzyme analysis, while no neuroaminidase
activity was found (Johannes-Gutenberg Universitat Mainz Kinderklinik Biochemical Laboratory).
The surface antigens hemagglutinin and neuroaminidase
display 16 subtypes (H1-H16) and 9 subtypes (N1-N9) respectively.
Even with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, and neuroaminidase
inhibitors there has been a high mortality rate (Hein, Liem, et al.
inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir are effective against influenza, a metaanalysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials shows.