neural crest cells


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neural crest cells (nŏŏr´əl),

n the band of specialized cells from the neuroectoderm that lies along the outer surface of each side of the neural tube in the early stages of embryonic development. The cells migrate laterally throughout the embryo and give rise to certain spinal, cranial, and sympathetic ganglia. They also influence the ectomesenchyme to form dental tissues.
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Neural crest.

neural

pertaining to a nerve or to the nerves.

neural crest cells
a group of neuroepithelial cells which condenses dorsal to the neural tube in the embryo; they subsequently migrate and set up dorsal root ganglia, the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, and the pigment cells of the integument (melanocytes).
neural folds
in the embryo, the sides of the invaginated neural plate that meet and fuse over the neural groove to form the neural tube.
neural groove
the longitudinal furrow in the neural plate of the embryo.
neural lymphomatosis
neural plate
the thickened ectoderm dorsal to the notochord in the embryo that gives rise to the neural tube.
neural retina
separated from the outer layer of the optic retina by the intraretinal space; constitutes the pars optica retinae, with its neuroepithelial layer (contains rods and cones—the receptor cells), bipolar ganglion layer, multipolar ganglion layer, and a layer of axons of the latter layer. Light must pass through the latter three layers before reaching the receptor cells.
neural substrates
functional units of the central nervous system, often composed of a series of structural units which may be widely separated anatomically but which interact to support or drive complex nervous system functions, such as hunger and sleepiness. They are the counterparts of simple centers, e.g. the respiratory center, which control simple physiological mechanisms.
neural tropic influence
the tropic influence of nerves on, for example, muscle, demonstrated by the atrophy of muscle when it is denervated.
neural tube
the precursor of the central nervous system in the embryo, formed by invagination and fusion of the neural plate.
References in periodicals archive ?
During embryonic development, the facial cartilage and bone responsible for these craniofacial features (as well as certain central nervous system cells) are derived from a subset of embryonic cells called cranial neural crest cells.
vitamin A) that is necessary for normal embryonic development, including the development of a certain cell type, the cranial neural crest cells, into head and facial structures.
The combination of the neural crest cell hypothesis and supporting genetic evidence, such as that provided by this study, give researchers clues about which genes or biological systems might be most important for domestication, he says.
Neural crest cells play a role in the development of cartilage and bone in the face, smooth muscle, pigment cells, parts of the nervous system and the adrenal glands, which control the fight-or-flight response.
As Wilkins tells it, he was photocopying research papers about neural crest cells for a book he is writing on the human face.
Wilkins and Wrangham knew that other scientists had linked defects in the migration of neural crest cells to spotted coat colors, short jaws and small adrenal glands.
In selecting compliant companions, humans may have inadvertently picked animals with mild neural crest cell defects.
The neural crest cell defects are probably the result of changes in dozens of genes, each producing a small effect on the cells' behavior, the team proposes.
Xslug has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in both the induction and the subsequent migration of neural crest cells in Xenopus (Carl et al.
Moreover, although our results suggest that neural crest derivatives may be highly sensitive and excellent markers of the disruptive actions of environmental estrogens, these toxicants appear more likely to interfere with factors that regulate the later differentiation of neural crest cells rather than those that control their early induction.
Apoptotic cells were observed within regions that could correspond to migratory pathways for neural crest cells not only in the head but also in the dorsal fin and enteric regions, but it was not possible by TUNEL staining to identify these cells as neural crest derivatives.
An assay system to study migratory behavior of cranial neural crest cells in Xenopus.