transcription

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transcription

 [trans-krip´shun]
1. the transfer of information.
2. the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template catalyzed by an RNA polymerase; the base sequences of the RNA and the DNA template are complementary.
order transcription in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as transferring information from order sheets to the nursing patient care planning and documentation system.

tran·scrip·tion

(tran-skrip'shŭn), Avoid the misspelling transscription.
Transfer of genetic code information from one kind of nucleic acid to another, especially with reference to the process by which a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized (by an RNA polymerase) on a template of complementary DNA.

transcription

/trans·crip·tion/ (-krip´shun) the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template catalyzed by RNA polymerase; the base sequences of the RNA and DNA are complementary.
Enlarge picture
Transcription. Binding of the RNA polymerase at a specific site on DNA to be transcribed (A) is followed by unwinding of a region of the DNA helix and initiation of transcription in a 5′ to 3′ direction (B), producing an RNA transcript complementary to, and hydrogen-bonded with, the template strand of the DNA. The transcript elongates as the polymerase proceeds down the DNA (C), helix unwinding before and rewinding after it.

transcription

(trăn-skrĭp′shən)
n.
1. The act or process of transcribing.
2. Genetics The synthesis of messenger RNA from a DNA template through the formation of base pairs, resulting in a transfer of genetic information that codes for amino acid sequences composing proteins.

tran·scrip′tion·al adj.
tran·scrip′tion·al·ly adv.
tran·scrip′tion·ist n.

transcription

[transkrip′shən]
Etymology: L, trans + scribere, to write
the process by which messenger RNA is formed from a DNA template. See also anticodon, genetic code.

transcription

The process of transforming dictated or otherwise documented information from one medium (e.g., audiotapes, clinical letters, source documents, lab instruments, case report forms (CRFs) and so on) to another (e.g., electronic CRFs).

tran·scrip·tion

(tran-skrip'shŭn)
1. Transfer of genetic code information from one kind of nucleic acid to another, especially with reference to the process by which a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized (by an RNA polymerase) on a template of complementary DNA.
2. Process in which medical transcriptionists convert dictated health care information into a printable document.

transcription

The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
Transcriptionclick for a larger image
Fig. 301 Transcription . Uracil replaces thymine in the RNA stage. See genetic code for details of triplets.

transcription

the formation of RNA from a DNA template. The RNA may be rRNA or tRNA which are used directly, or mRNA which is translated into protein (see PROTEIN SYNTHESIS). The process can be divided into a number of steps (see Fig. 301 ):
  1. (a) the DNA double helix unwinds.
  2. (b) only one DNA POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN serves as a template (the CODING STRAND or sense strand) in any one region, although both chains will act as templates in different locations.
  3. (c) the enzyme RNA polymerase catalyses the synthesis of an RNA molecule from RIBONUCLEOTIDES with bases complementary to the DNA base sequence, starting at the transcription start site on DNA. Growth of the RNA chain is from 5′ to 3′, the same as in DNA synthesis.
  4. (d) transcription continues until a transcription terminator signal is reached.
  5. (e) in eukaryotes the new RNA molecule (transcript) leaves the DNA of the nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm, where it will function as TRANSFER RNA, MESSENGER RNA or RIBOSOMAL RNA. In prokaryotes the new RNA molecule is synthesized in the cytoplasm.
  6. (f) the two chains of the DNA molecule reanneal to restore the duplex as transcription proceeds.

transcription

the synthesis of an RNA copy from a nucleotide sequence in a limited region of DNA. See also deoxyribonucleic acid and transcriptase.

transcription-control region
the cis-acting DNA sequences regulating transcription of a specific gene.
transcription factor (TF)
a general term for any protein, other than RNA polymerase, required to initiate or regulate transcription in eukaryotic cells. General TFs are involved in the formation of the transcription-preinitiation complexes near the start site and are required for transcription of all genes; specific TFs stimulate (activators) or inhibit (suppressors) transcription of particular genes by binding to their regulatory sequences.
nested set transcription
a hallmark of the replication strategy of coronaviruses, toroviruses and arteriviruses, in which a nested set of subgenomic mRNAs are generated having identical 5′-leader sequences and a common 3′-termini, but because of discontinuous transcription each mRNA has a unique coding sequence and is transcribed into a unique viral protein.
reverse transcription
the synthesis of a DNA copy from a RNA template, catalyzed by reverse transcriptase.
transcription unit
see operon.