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Hyperplasia of the cells of the islets of Langerhans.
[nesidioblast + G. -osis, tumor]
nesidioblastosis(1) A term first used in 1938 by Laidlaw for the neodifferentiation of islets of Langerhans from pancreatic ductal epithelium, which is clinically characterised by severe recurrent hypoglycemia and inappropriate elevation of serum insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin. It was later renamed persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI; some authors prefer congenital hyperinsulinism—CH). It is the most common cause of hyperinsulinism in neonates and, if untreated, can lead to hypoglycaemic brain damage or death. Once regarded as exclusive to infants and children, it may rarely occur in adults. PHHI/CH responds poorly if at all to medical management, mandating subtotal pancreatectomy.
(2) Acquired hyperinsulinism in adults caused by beta cell hyperplasia post-GI surgery.
Diffuse hyperplasia of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. It is a rare cause of hypoglycemia.
pancreatic ductular and islet cell proliferation in children and in dogs with islet cell neoplasms.