References in periodicals archive ?
The cubomedusan nervous system includes a centralized system of four rhopalia interconnected by a nerve ring, and peripheral nerve nets in several parts of the medusa that serve motor, sensory, and likely modulatory functions (Skogh el al, 2006; Garm et ai, 2007a; Parkefelt and Ekstrom, 2009; Satterlie, 2011).
Salivary glands cluster around oesophagus along region of valve of Leiblein and ventral ganglia of nerve ring, attached to lateral surface of anterior oesophagus just anterior to valve of Leiblein (Figs 29, 30: sg); their ducts very narrow, except for short proximal region that runs completely attached to anterior oesophagus wall and, more anteriorly, inside dorsal folds of buccal cavity (Fig.
Nerve ring encircles the midregion of muscular esophagus in males: but in females, it encircles the anterior region of muscular esophagus.
Lateral alae extending from just anterior to nerve ring in both sexes to the preanal region in males and to near midbody in females.
Excretory pore situated between base of subventral lips or near nerve ring.
The excretory pore is levelled with the nerve ring or behind it, and the ventricular appendices are long and slender.
076) of spicules distance of nerve ring deirids and excretory pore from the anterior extremity and in the females by measurements of eggs (0.
2007b) define the cubozoan central nervous system (CNS) as containing the integrative elements of the rhopalia and the nerve ring.
65 mm; length of oesophagus: 294-354; nerve ring from anterior end: 186-210 and others are greater, e.
Nerve ring situated a little behind the anterior end of glandular esophagus in males, while in females is located in the second half of glandular esophagus.