nephrosclerosis


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Related to nephrosclerosis: malignant nephrosclerosis

nephrosclerosis

 [nef″ro-sklĕ-ro´sis]
hardening of the kidney, usually associated with hypertension and disease of the renal arterioles. It is characterized as benign or malignant depending on the severity and rapidity of the hypertension and arteriolar changes.
arteriolar nephrosclerosis that involving chiefly the arterioles, with degeneration of the renal tubules and fibrotic thickening of the glomeruli; it has an insidious onset and is characterized by cylindruria, edema, hypertrophy of the heart, degeneration of the renal tubules, and glomerulonephritis. Types include benign and malignant arteriolar nephrosclerosis.
benign nephrosclerosis (benign arteriolar nephrosclerosis) arteriolar nephrosclerosis usually seen in patients over 60 years old and associated with benign hypertension and hyaline arteriolosclerosis. In younger persons, it may occur in diabetics with a predisposition to arteriolosclerosis and in those who have hypertension resulting from an apparent underlying disease, such as pheochromocytoma.
hypertensive nephrosclerosis the most common kind of arteriolar nephrosclerosis, due to hypertension of the renal arterioles.
malignant nephrosclerosis (malignant arteriolar nephrosclerosis) an uncommon form of arteriolar nephrosclerosis affecting all the vessels of the body, especially the small arteries and arterioles of the kidneys, and frequently associated with malignant hypertension and hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis. Renal changes include arteriolar necrosis with red blood cells and casts in the urine. It may occur in the absence of previous history of hypertension, or may be superimposed on benign hypertension or primary renal disease, especially glomerulonephritis, benign nephrosclerosis, and pyelonephritis.

neph·ro·scle·ro·sis

(nef'rō-sklĕ-rō'sis),
Fibrosis of the kidney from overgrowth and contraction of the interstitial connective tissue.
[nephro- + G. sklērōsis, hardening]

nephrosclerosis

/neph·ro·scle·ro·sis/ (nef″ro-sklĕ-ro´sis) hardening of the kidney due to renovascular disease.
arteriolar nephrosclerosis  that involving mainly arterioles, with degeneration of renal tubules and fibrotic thickening of glomeruli; there are both benign and malignant forms.

nephrosclerosis

nephrosclerosis

Global fibrosis and atrophy of glomeruli, most common in atherosclerotic kidneys.

Benign nephrosclerosis
A relatively common, symmetrical and indolent process causing benign hypertension. Average age of onset is 60, 5% of whom die of renal failure.
 
Pathology
Hyaline arteriolosclerosis, scarring of glomeruli.
 
Malignant nephrosclerosis
An uncommon process affecting 5% of hypertensives, often beginning < age 45.
 
Pathology
Fibrinoid necrosis of small arteries (necrotising arteriolitis); intimal hyperplasia of larger interlobular arteries (hyperplastic arteriolitis); “onion-skinning”; collagen deposition and fibroblastic proliferation with luminal narrowing; thrombosis and necrosis of the glomeruli with atrophy and parenchymal scarring

nephrosclerosis

Arteriolonephrosclerosis Global fibrosis and atrophy of glomeruli, most common in atherosclerotic kidneys. See Malignant.

neph·ro·scle·ro·sis

(nef'rō-skle-rō'sis)
Induration of the kidney from overgrowth and contraction of the interstitial connective tissue.
[nephro- + G. sklērōsis, hardening]

nephrosclerosis

hardening of the kidney associated with chronic glomerulonephritis and in humans especially with hypertension and disease of the renal arterioles.
References in periodicals archive ?
Three cases progressed to end-stage renal disease, 2 with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and 1 with diabetic nephropathy, from 1 to 4.
Long-term existence of hydronephrosis, complicated with secondary pyelonephritis, leads to the development of nephrosclerosis, secondary renal scarring, and renal insufficiency.
The most common diagnosis was diabetic nephropathy (n = 59; 33%) followed by primary and secondary forms of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (n = 37; 21%), hypertensive and atherosclerotic renal disease (n = 30; 17%), membranous nephropathy (n = 19; 11%), primary chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (n = 7; 4%), amyloidosis/monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (n = 7; 4%), thin basement membrane nephropathy/Alport syndrome (n = 6; 3%), minimal change disease superimposed on nephrosclerosis (n = 4; 2%), fibrillary glomerulonephritis (n = 3; 2%), inactive membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis or idiopathic nodular glomerular sclerosis (n = 3; 2%), inactive lupus nephritis (n = 1; 1%), and fibronectin glomerulopathy (n = 1; 1%).
The most common causes of ESRD in both groups were diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, and nephrosclerosis.
Overall, 51% of the patients had hypertensive nephrosclerosis, 22% had diabetic nephropathy, 18% had renovascular disease, and 9% had CKD due to other causes.
The AASK is the first published large-scale trial to our knowledge that examines both the effect of 3 different antihypertensive regiments as well as the effect of 2 BP goals on decline in kidney function in a population with chronic kidney disease attributed to hypertensive nephrosclerosis," write the authors.
Hypertensive nephrosclerosis is among the most common causes of progressive renal disease, especially in African-Americans.
The researchers looked at four signs of nephrosclerosis, or chronic kidney injury: glomerulosclerosis (scarring of the kidney's filtration units), tubular atrophy (loss of the tubes that process urine), interstitial fibrosis (general scarring of the kidney tissue), and arteriosclerosis (narrowing of tiny blood vessels).
Previous renal biopsy demonstrated nephrosclerosis secondary to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.
But the report at the nephrology meeting placed unprecedented emphasis on the relevance of the results to drug selection when treating African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.
A large spectrum of changes is noted (Table 2), the most frequent of which are arterial nephrosclerosis without (29%) or with (22%) renal tissue scarring, and diabetic nephropathy (23%).
3) Other nonlupus renal lesions documented regardless of clinical or serologic activity of SLE are secondary amyloidosis, IgM nephropathy, thin basement membrane disease, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis (25) following a renal biopsy.