beta-haemolytic streptococcus is the commonest cause of PIGN, several other bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsia, protozoa and parasites have also been implicated.
Changes in nephritogenic
serum galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy following tonsillectomy and steroid therapy," PLoS ONE, vol.
28] One child in the present study was noted to have concurrent ARF and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, an unusual occurrence that is thought to be due to some GAS strains being both nephritogenic
Certain strains of group A streptococci are either rheumatogenic or nephritogenic
, while others are neither.
30) Some of these antibody subsets are pathogenic and may take part in the nephritogenic
process in SLE.
Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with renal cell carcinoma: failure to detect a nephritogenic
APSGN can occur approximately 2 weeks after impetigo infections due to nephritogenic
strains of GABHS.
These findings are consistent with reports that many nephritogenic
anti-native-DNA antibodies also bind to non-DNA determinants prevalent in glomeruli.
lambda light chain dimer: a unique human miniautoantibody against complement factor H.
3] The nephritogenic
strains include M types 1, 2, 4 and 12 in patients with sore throat and M types 25, 45, 47, 55, 57 and 60 in patients with impetigo.
Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis usually develops 10 - 14 days after a skin or throat infection with a nephritogenic
strain of group A streptococcus.
Nevertheless, at least theoretically, identifying nephritogenic
BKV strains or specific TCR sequence variations in urine or blood of patients with renal transplants and PVAN, by means of PCR and sequence analysis, could have practical importance in diagnosing the disease without the need for a renal biopsy, in the same way that identifying PML-like strains in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PML can allow a definite diagnosis in appropriate clinical settings.