Insufficient energy intake and, consequently negative energy balance
has been already demonstrated in endurance athletes only for a short period of time of increased energetic demand (one week of high-volume vs.
Both male and female dancers had less energy intake (EI) than their energy expenditure, resulting in a negative energy balance
, with males having higher negative values than females (p<0.
The energy requirements for milk production during early lactation often exceed the available energy from feed intake and the cow goes into negative energy balance
Thereafter, levels begin to decline as the cow recovers from hypophagia and the negative energy balance
(Vasquez-Anon et al.
21,22,23,24) In this study when the nutritional status of adolescent girls was assessed against their energy balance, it was evident that under-nutrition was higher in subjects with negative energy balance
than those with positive balance.
The most economically important production diseases of high yielding dairy animals which occur as a result of negative energy balance
are ketosis and fat cow syndrome.
These data suggested that cows with a 7 or 8-wk dry period were in a greater negative energy balance
in the early postpartum period, most likely due to higher milk yields.
HDL-cholesterol = high density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol = low density lipoprotein NEB = negative energy balance
NEFA = non-esterified fatty acids T4 = thyroxin
That leads to a negative energy balance
of 3,500 kcal or a loss of about one pound that week.
Ghrelin promotes the drive for food intake and maintains blood glucose during negative energy balance
as well as subserving the rewarding nature of food.
The intervention group had a negative energy balance
between phases (-244 kcal/day), compared with a positive energy balance for the control groups (57 kcal/day).
Mr McPherson said: The glimpses of it I''ve had myself have been very fleeting, but the concern I do have is that it appears to have some muscle wastage across its back muscles, which would indicate it is in a negative energy balance
and that it hasn''t been eating well for quite some time.