nasopharyngeal carcinoma


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Related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Burkitt's lymphoma

carcinoma

 [kahr″sĭ-no´mah] (pl. carcinomas, carcino´mata)
a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases. A form of cancer, carcinoma makes up the majority of the cases of malignancy of the breast, uterus, intestinal tract, skin, and tongue.
adenocystic carcinoma (adenoid cystic carcinoma) carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary and salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.
alveolar carcinoma bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
basal cell carcinoma the most common form of skin cancer, consisting of an epithelial tumor of the skin originating from neoplastic differentiation of basal cells, rarely metastatic but locally invasive and aggressive. It usually occurs as small pearly nodules or plaques on the face of an older adult, particularly on a sun-exposed area of someone with fair skin. It has been divided into numerous subtypes on the basis of clinical and histological characteristics.
basosquamous carcinoma carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements.
bronchioalveolar carcinoma (bronchiolar carcinoma) (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) (bronchoalveolar carcinoma) a variant type of adenocarcinoma of the lung, with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in branching papillary formations. Called also alveolar carcinoma or adenocarcinoma and bronchiolar, bronchioloalveolar, or bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma.
bronchogenic carcinoma any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
cholangiocellular carcinoma a rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from the cholangioles, consisting of two layers of cells surrounding a minute lumen. Called also bile duct carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.
chorionic carcinoma choriocarcinoma.
colloid carcinoma mucinous carcinoma.
cylindrical cell carcinoma carcinoma in which the cells are cylindrical or nearly so.
embryonal carcinoma a highly malignant germ cell tumor that is a primitive form of carcinoma, probably of primitive embryonal cell derivation; it usually arises in a gonad and may be found either in pure form or as part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
epidermoid carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma.
giant cell carcinoma a poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing many large multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs.
hepatocellular carcinoma primary carcinoma of the liver cells with hepatomegaly, jaundice, hemoperitoneum, and other symptoms of the presence of an abdominal mass. It is rare in North America and Western Europe but is one of the most common malignancies in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and elsewhere. A strong association seems to exist with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Hürthle cell carcinoma a malignant Hürthle cell tumor.
carcinoma in si´tu a neoplasm whose tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane; the likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high.
large cell carcinoma a type of bronchogenic carcinoma of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size, a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone further dedifferentiation.
medullary carcinoma that composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma.
mucinous carcinoma an adenocarcinoma that produces significant amounts of mucin.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma a malignant tumor arising in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, occurring at high frequency in people of Chinese descent. The epstein-barr virus has been implicated as a causative agent.
non–small cell carcinoma a general term comprising all lung carcinomas except small cell carcinoma, and including adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
oat cell carcinoma a form of small cell carcinoma in which the cells are round or elongated and slightly larger than lymphocytes; they have scanty cytoplasm and clump poorly.
papillary carcinoma carcinoma in which there are papillary growths that are irregular in nature arising from otherwise normal tissue; it can occur in the thyroid gland, the breast, or the bladder. Called also papillocarcinoma.
renal cell carcinoma carcinoma of the renal parenchyma, composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; called also clear cell carcinoma.
scirrhous carcinoma carcinoma with a hard structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. Called also fibrocarcinoma.
carcinoma sim´plex an undifferentiated carcinoma.
small cell carcinoma a common, highly malignant form of bronchogenic carcinoma in the wall of a major bronchus, occurring mainly in middle-aged individuals with a history of tobacco smoking; it is radiosensitive and has small oval undifferentiated cells. Metastasis to the hilum and to mediastinal lymph nodes is common.
spindle cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma marked by development of rapidly proliferating spindle cells.
squamous cell carcinoma
1. carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium, having cuboid cells and characterized by keratinization. Initially local and superficial, the lesion may later invade and metastasize.
2. the form occurring in the skin, usually originating in sun-damaged areas or preexisting lesions.
3. in the lung, one of the most common types of bronchogenic carcinoma, generally forming polypoid or sessile masses that obstruct the airways of the bronchi. It usually occurs in middle-aged individuals with a history of smoking. There is frequent invasion of blood and lymphatic vessels with metastasis to regional lymph nodes and other sites. Called also epidermoid carcinoma.
transitional cell carcinoma a malignant tumor arising from a transitional type of stratified epithelium, usually affecting the urinary bladder.
verrucous carcinoma
1. a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has a predilection for the buccal mucosa but also affects other oral soft tissue and the larynx. It is slow-growing and somewhat invasive.
2. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, so called because it is histologically similar to the oral lesion.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

[MIM*161550]
a squamous cell carcinoma arising from the surface epithelium of the nasopharynx; three histologic variants are recognized: keratinizing, nonkeratinizing, and undifferentiated carcinoma.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

A rare (in the West) malignancy which is endemic in regions of southern China—where it comprises up to 18% of cancers—as well as in southeast Asia. It is linked to EBV infection, diets high in nitrosamines and inhaled carcinogens. It is more common in males and has a peak incidence of age 40 to 50.

DiffDx
Lymphoma (DLCBL, Hodgkin's), reactive lymphoid proliferation, sarcomas.

Management
Radiotherapy, chemotherapy.

Prognosis
Stage dependant; 5-year survival is 55%.

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (WHO, 2005)
- Keratinising squamous cell carcinoma
- Non keratinsing carcinoma
  • Differentiated
  • Undifferentiated
- Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
- Nasopharyngeal cancer, staging
  • Stage I—Lesion confined to nasopharynx.
  • Stage II
    A) Lesion extends to oropharynx and/or nasal fossa.
    B) Lesion extends to nearby lymph nodes or to parapharyngeal region.
  • Stage III—Lesion spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or nearby bones or sinuses.
  • Stage IV
    A) Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head; possible spread to regional lymph nodes.
    B) Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head and to lymph nodes above clavicle, or are ≥ 6 cm in greatest dimension.
    C) Metastasised.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal cancer A rare malignancy, which is endemic to regions of southern China and Southeast Asia; persons with serologic markers for EBV–IgA antibodies against EBV capsid antigen and/or neutralizing antibodies against EBV-specific DNase have a 3-fold cumulative risk of nasopharyngeal cancer if one marker was positive and a 35-fold risk if both markers are positive. See Epstein-Barr virus.
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Stage I Lesion confined to nasopharynx
Stage II
A  Lesion extends to oropharynx and/or nasal fossa
B  Lesion extends to nearby lymph nodes or to parapharyngeal region
Stage III Lesion spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or to nearby bones or sinuses
Stage IV
A Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head, and  possibly to nearby lymph nodes
B Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head and to lymph nodes above clavicle or are ≥ 6 cm
C Lesion has metastasized

na·so·pha·ryn·ge·al car·ci·no·ma

(nā'zō-fă-rin'jē-ăl kahr'si-nō'mă)
A squamous cell carcinoma arising from the surface epithelium of the nasopharynx; three histologic variants are recognized: keratinizing, nonkeratinizing, and undifferentiated carcinoma.
References in periodicals archive ?
Plasma Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin A and DNA for nasopharyngeal carcinoma screening in the United States.
Quantification of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Clonal proliferation of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus in preinvasive lesions related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cranial nerve involvement and base of the skull erosion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy among adults seen at the University Malaya Medical Center in Kuala Lumpur.
Examples include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)4 with Hodgkin disease, Burkitt lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) (43, 44) and the human papillomavirus with head and neck and cervical cancers (45).
While all irradiated patients are at risk for developing radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis, those who are radiated for advanced laryngeal or nasopharyngeal carcinoma should be followed more closely for this complication.
We review the literature on nasopharyngeal carcinoma that has been published within the past 5 years.
These studies also support the ability of Genasense, in preclinical models, to effectively reduce the amount of Bcl-2 present in melanoma, leukemia, non-small cell lung cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Smoking is a well-known risk factor for both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the development of a second primary.