nasopharyngeal cancer

nasopharyngeal cancer

a malignant neoplastic disease of the nasopharynx. Depending on the site of a nasopharyngeal tumor, there may be nasal obstruction, otitis media, hearing loss, sensory or motor nerve damage, bony destruction of the skull, or deep cervical lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic measures include nasopharyngoscopy, biopsy, and radiological examination of the skull with tomographic studies. Squamous cell and undifferentiated carcinomas are the most common lesions. Nasopharyngeal cancer occurs rarely in the United States and frequently in southern China. Exposure to dusts of nickel, chromium, wood, and leather and to isopropyl oil increases the risk of developing nasopharyngeal cancer. High titers of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus are found in Chinese patients with the cancer, and there is evidence of genetic susceptibility, because a certain histocompatibility antigen is associated with the disease and multiple cases occur in some families. Radiation is the most effective therapy, and chemotherapy is also used.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

A rare (in the West) malignancy which is endemic in regions of southern China—where it comprises up to 18% of cancers—as well as in southeast Asia. It is linked to EBV infection, diets high in nitrosamines and inhaled carcinogens. It is more common in males and has a peak incidence of age 40 to 50.

DiffDx
Lymphoma (DLCBL, Hodgkin's), reactive lymphoid proliferation, sarcomas.

Management
Radiotherapy, chemotherapy.

Prognosis
Stage dependant; 5-year survival is 55%.

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (WHO, 2005)
- Keratinising squamous cell carcinoma
- Non keratinsing carcinoma
  • Differentiated
  • Undifferentiated
- Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
- Nasopharyngeal cancer, staging
  • Stage I—Lesion confined to nasopharynx.
  • Stage II
    A) Lesion extends to oropharynx and/or nasal fossa.
    B) Lesion extends to nearby lymph nodes or to parapharyngeal region.
  • Stage III—Lesion spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or nearby bones or sinuses.
  • Stage IV
    A) Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head; possible spread to regional lymph nodes.
    B) Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head and to lymph nodes above clavicle, or are ≥ 6 cm in greatest dimension.
    C) Metastasised.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal cancer A rare malignancy, which is endemic to regions of southern China and Southeast Asia; persons with serologic markers for EBV–IgA antibodies against EBV capsid antigen and/or neutralizing antibodies against EBV-specific DNase have a 3-fold cumulative risk of nasopharyngeal cancer if one marker was positive and a 35-fold risk if both markers are positive. See Epstein-Barr virus.
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Stage I Lesion confined to nasopharynx
Stage II
A  Lesion extends to oropharynx and/or nasal fossa
B  Lesion extends to nearby lymph nodes or to parapharyngeal region
Stage III Lesion spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or to nearby bones or sinuses
Stage IV
A Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head, and  possibly to nearby lymph nodes
B Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head and to lymph nodes above clavicle or are ≥ 6 cm
C Lesion has metastasized
References in periodicals archive ?
8 Salted fish - In China, rates of nasopharyngeal cancer - a rare type of head and neck cancer - are higher than anywhere else, and this has been linked to the fact that Cantonese style salted fish (a known carcinogen) is a staple part of the region's general diet.
salted fish In China, rates of nasopharyngeal cancer - a rare head and neck cancer - are highest, where known carcingen Cantonese style salted fish is a staple.
com adds H2 2015 cancer pipeline review research reports for bladder, nasopharyngeal cancer and metastatic prostate cancer with a focus on their products and therapeutic development.
We conducted a study to evaluate the quality of guidelines for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with the exception of nasopharyngeal cancer.
Radiotherapy side effects with oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal cancer.
Joined by orofacial pain specialists and others from the US, they address the 30 most common conditions, including neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain, headache, oral mucositis and oral ulcerations, orofacial pain and other co-morbidities in oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal cancer patients, burning mouth syndrome, masticatory myogenous pain, temporomandibular joint arthritis, oral motor disorders, and uncommon orofacial pain disorders, and their clinical characteristics and evidence-based treatment approaches, and the top 60 medications and their use.
Specific cancers studied included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal cancer, and primary liver cancer.
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a nose cancer and another example of a cancer that is rare in Western countries but is much more common in Asia.
This study does not just report another molecular marker for metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer, these investigators have revealed an important process related to this molecule," Wei Zhang, Ph.
Formaldehyde has long been associated with asthma, acute respiratory illness, and nasopharyngeal cancer.
Seliciclib (CYC202 or R-roscovitine), a CDK (cyclin dependent kinase) inhibitor, is in Phase 2 studies for the treatment of lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer and in a Phase 1 trial in combination with sapacitabine.
Already classified as a "known human carcinogen" in nasopharyngeal cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the agency also reported a link between formaldehyde exposure and leukemia.