pertaining to the nose.
characterized by mild nasal discharge and hyperemia, occasionally severe rhinitis. See also pneumonyssuscaninum
a chronic granulomatous lesion in the nasal cavity of the sheep, causing nasal obstruction and discharge, usually unilaterally.
in horses analogous to AL-amyloidosis in humans; can occur independently of a generalized disease, affecting nasal vestibule and anterior septum and turbinates, with sufficient nodular or diffuse deposits to obstruct the nasal passage.
nasal areae, nasal plane
the polygonal, raised, epidermal markings on the skin of the nasolabial plane of the dog. The pattern of marking is individual to each dog and can be used for identification, similar to the use of fingerprints in humans.
nasal bot fly
infestation causes sneezing and constant nasal discharge. The presence of the flies in the flock causes some insect worry. See also oestrusovis
flow of the breath from the nostrils as distinct from the breath from the mouth.
nasal breath volume
as determined by holding the palms of the hands in front of the nostrils; diminution or cessation of flow are readily appreciated.
chronic nasal discharge without obvious physical cause. A specific problem of unknown etiology in rabbits, although Bordetella bronchiseptica is thought to be implicated. Manifested by sneezing, constant nasal and ocular discharge and matting of the fur on the insides of the forelimbs. Called also snuffles.
nasal cavity erectile tissue
erectile tissue present only in some patients; usually collapsed.
nasal cavity obstruction
by mucosal inflammation, foreign body, neoplasm; detected by assessing the nasal breath flow.
nasal cavity olfactory region
located on ethmoturbinates, turbinates and nasal septum; covered by olfactory epithelium including sustentacular, basal and olfactory cells.
nasal cavity respiratory region
covers most of the cavities; covered by respiratory epithelium containing many, mainly serous, glands and carrying cilia.
see paranasal sinuses.
nasal cavity vestibular region
place of transition from skin to respiratory epithelium.
see Table 10.
reciprocal change in degree of congestion between nostrils; when the mucosa of one nasal cavity becomes congested the mucosal congestion of the opposite nasal cavity diminishes.
1. occurs as a congenital deviation of the maxilla and nasal septum and leads to malocclusion of the maxillary teeth.
2. in older animals can result from paranasal
sinus cysts or sinonasal neoplasia.
Nasal deviation in a horse. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
may be unilateral or bilateral, serous, purulent, hemorrhagic, or contain food material.
encapsulated nasal hematoma
persistent because of its size; blood is accumulated under respiratory mucosa so as to resemble a polyp. Like a polyp the hematoma obstructs the flow of breath through the nasal cavity.
enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma
of sheep and cattle may occur at a sufficiently high incidence to suggest an infectious cause. Usually unilateral in front of the ethmoid bone.
nasal foreign bodies
take the form of grass seeds or sticks poked up while the animal is scratching its muzzle in allergic rhinitis, especially in cattle. Cause sneezing, nasal discharge, inspiratory dyspnea, snoring noise and rubbing of the nose. Foreign bodies may be viewable or palpable.
the caudal part of the nasal cavity, close to the ethmoid bone.
cause unilateral nasal obstruction; are usually the result of foreign body injury, rarely due to inept passage of a nasal tube or endoscope.
. Called also rhinorrhagia, nose bleed.
see nasal acariasis (above).
nasal mucosal inflammation nasal obstruction
causes respiratory stertor, mouth breathing, and small airstreams from the nostrils. It may be caused by a palpable foreign body.
smell of the nasal breath; may be necrotic, smell of ketones.
progressive nasal hematoma nasal schistosomiasis
infection with the blood fluke schistosoma
, which is largely asymptomatic but can cause dyspnea, snoring and profuse nasal discharge.
a vertical plate of bone and cartilage covered with mucous membrane that divides the cavity of the nose. See also septum
cotton swab on a stick, passed up the nostril to obtain a sample of exudate and epithelial debris for microbiological or cellular examination.
see nasal conchae (above) and Table 10.
the part of the nasal cavity just inside the nostrils that is lined with skin.
flushing of the nasal cavity, usually with sterile saline, to recover cells or infectious agents for cytology or culture.
1. any growth or mass protruding from a mucous membrane. Polyps may be attached to a membrane by a thin stalk, in which case they are known as pedunculated polyps, or may have a broad base (sessile polyps). They are usually an overgrowth of normal tissue, but sometimes polyps are true tumors or masses of new tissue separate from the supporting membrane. Usually benign, they may lead to complications or eventually become malignant.
Polyps may occur wherever there is mucous membrane: in the nose, ears, mouth, lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus and cervix. Terminology includes location and/or contents, e.g. adenomatous, fibrous, gastric, tracheal.
2. a sedentary form of hydrozoan, e.g. sea anemone.
causes nasal obstruction in sporadic cases. Mycotic nasal granuloma of cattle is manifested by respiratory obstruction and polyps in the anterior part of the nasal cavity. They are eosinophilic granulomas containing spores and hyphae of the fungus Drechslera rostrata. In cats, inflammatory polyps arise from mucosa of the nasal cavity or auditory canal.
occur in cats of any age; inflammatory in origin, they may cause dyspnea, sometimes sneezing.
cause difficult swallowing and breathing. In cattle they are pedunculated and capable of much movement and erratic clinical signs.