Pathogenesis of myonecrosis induced by crude venom and a myotoxin
of Bothrops asper.
This plant represents a potential source of promising myotoxin inhibitors.
catharinensis AE is able to decrease the myotoxic activity of Bothrops jararacussu venom and its myotoxins, demonstrating that this plant represents a potential source of promising myotoxin inhibitors which could eventually be used in studies on the action mechanisms of toxins and AE and even as therapeutic agents against local tissue alterations caused by snake bites.
The amino acid sequence of bothropstoxin-II, a Asp-49 myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu (jararacucu) venoms with low phospholipase [A.
2]) isolated from snakes of the genus Bothrops belong to group II and can be divided into two subclasses: (1) Asp49 myotoxins, with moderate catalytic activity, and (2) Lys49 myotoxins, with no hydrolytic activity on artificial substrates (Gutierrez and Lomonte, 1997; Ownby et al.
Leatherhead Food RA are co-ordinating the European Myotoxin Awareness Network (EMAN), a European Commission funded project set up to combat lack of knowledge about this important safety issue.
The project will be responsible for communicating all the latest information and the progress undertaken in the area of myotoxins to their members and other interested parties.
The ultimate outcome of the project will be the establishment of a network that can provide readily available information on many aspects of myotoxins through the World Wide Web.
A number of venoms also contain myotoxins
which destroy muscle tissue, and haemolysins that attack and liquidate red blood cells.
Their mode of action and objectives are mainly neurotoxins, but cardiotoxins, myotoxins
and hemostatic toxins are also present (Nkinin et al.
These biocontaminants include bacteria, bacterial endotoxins, fungi, fungal spores, myotoxins
, viruses, algae, parasites, cat dander, dust mite allergens, plant pollen and insect pest allergens.
Other applications are being developed for release over the next few months and will include antibiotic residues and myotoxins