Preoperative MRI to evaluate for depth of myometrial
invasion has been described in cases of known endometrial cancer; however, its role in discriminating between CAH and invasive cancer is not well studied.
Hysteroscopy biopsy grading was done within 2 weeks and considered as Gold Standard based on myometrial
fibrous tissue involvement and graded.
and leiomyoma (uterine fibroid) cells obtained from women with uterine fibroids were exposed to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in vitro.
Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is an uncommon form of ectopic pregnancy resulting from implantation of a blastocyst within myometrial
scar tissue in the anterior lower uterine segment (LUS), at the site of prior Cesarean section.
The ultrasound-measured distance of the myometrium between the two horns, as well as the variation in thickness of myometrial
components of the two horns, both of which facilitate the diagnosis of this anomaly with reasonable accuracy.
Previously it was said that accreta involved early myometrial
invasion, increta further and percreta beyond.
diameter <5 mm and loss of the trilaminate structure, or myometrial
Considering the tendency to rupture, it is also important to look for myometrial
discontinuity and hemoperitoneum whenever angular pregnancy is suspected.
In view of the scan findings and high betaHCG level, a differential diagnosis of an ectopic molar pregnancy with myometrial
invasion or scar pregnancy was made.
Total cystectomy, including the surrounding myometrial
tissue, was performed.
Results: In univariate analysis, grade 2-3, tumor size [greater than or equal to]3 cm, deep ([greater than or equal to]50%) myometrial
invasion, presence of cervical, adnexal or omental involvement, positive peritoneal cytology, open surgical approach (laparotomy), combined pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy and number of total LNs removed (>30) were found associated with LN involvement.
Macroscopically, most CAPUs are described as nodular or multinodular lesions with a myometrial
or subserosal localization and a fungating appearance.