mutism


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Related to mutism: elective mutism, akinetic mutism, Deaf mutism

Mutism

 

Definition

Mutism is a rare childhood condition characterized by a consistent failure to speak in situations where talking is expected. The child has the ability to converse normally, and does so, for example, in the home, but consistently fails to speak in specific situations such as at school or with strangers. It is estimated that one in every 1,000 school-age children are affected.

Description

Experts believe that this problem is associated with anxiety and fear in social situations such as in school or in the company of adults. It is therefore often considered a type of social phobia. This is not a communication disorder because the affected children can converse normally in some situations. It is not a developmental disorder because their ability to talk, when they choose to do so, is appropriate for their age level. This problem has been linked to anxiety, and one of the major ways in which both children and adults attempt to cope with anxiety is by avoiding whatever provokes the anxiety.
Affected children are typically shy, and are especially so in the presence of strangers and unfamiliar surroundings or situations. However, the behaviors of children with this condition go beyond shyness.

Causes and symptoms

Mutism is believed to arise from anxiety experienced in social situations where the child may be called upon to speak. Refusing to speak, or speaking in a whisper, spares the child from the possible humiliation or embarrassment of "saying the wrong thing." When asked a direct question by teachers, for example, the affected child may act as if they are unable to answer. Some children may communicate via gestures, nodding, or very brief utterances. Additional features may include excessive shyness, oppositional behavior, and impaired learning at school.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of mutism is fairly easy to make because the signs amd symptoms are clear-cut and easily observable. However, other social disorders effecting social speech, such as autism or schizophrenia, must be considered in the diagnosis.

Treatment

There are two recommended treatments for mutism: behavior modification therapy and antidepressant medication. Treatment is most effective when individualized to each patient. It has been suggested that speech pathologists may also be able to help these children.

Prognosis

The prognosis for mutism is good. Sometimes it disappears suddenly on its own. The negative impact on learning and school activities may, however, persist into adult life.

Prevention

Mutism cannot be prevented because the cause is not known. However, family conflict or problems at school contribute to the seriousness of the symptoms.

Resources

Books

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

Key terms

Behavior modification — A form of therapy that uses rewards to reinforce desired behavior. An example would be to give a child a piece of chocolate for grooming themselves appropriately.

mutism

 [mu´tizm]
inability or refusal to speak, most often because deafness has prevented the person from hearing the spoken word. speech is learned by imitating the speech of others. The child who is born with normal hearing and then loses it may lose part or all of the power of speech through loss of contact with the speech of others. Mutism may also occur because the voice organs themselves have been damaged or removed, such as when a laryngectomy is performed for throat cancer. In other cases loss of speech may be psychogenic in nature. Called also aphonia.
akinetic mutism a state in which the person makes no spontaneous movement or vocal sound, because of either neurologic or psychologic reasons. Called also abulia.
selective mutism a mental disorder of childhood characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations when the child is able and willing to speak to selected persons.

mut·ism

(myū'tizm),
1. The state of being silent.
2. Organic or functional absence of the faculty of speech.
[L. mutus, mute]

mutism

/mu·tism/ (mu´tizm) inability or refusal to speak.
akinetic mutism  a state in which the person can make no spontaneous movement or vocal sound; it often may be caused by a lesion in the third ventricle or be psychogenic. Called also abulia.
selective mutism  a mental disorder of childhood characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons.

mutism

(myo͞o′tĭz′əm)
n.
The condition of being unable or unwilling to speak as a result of a physical or psychological disorder.

mutism

[myo̅o̅′tizəm]
Etymology: L, mutus, mute
the inability to speak because of a physical defect or emotional problem.

mutism

Neurology Inability or refusal to speak

mut·ism

(myū'tizm)
1. The state of being silent.
2. Organic or functional absence of the faculty of speech.
[L. mutus, mute]

mutism

Inability or refusal to speak. There are many possible causes including deafness from birth, mental retardation, severe DEPRESSION, SCHIZOPHRENIA, HYSTERIA, brain tumour and HYDROCEPHALUS.

mut·ism

(myū'tizm)
1. State of being silent.
2. Organic or functional absence of faculty of speech.
[L. mutus, mute]

mutism (mūtizəm),

n a condition in which the patient is physically unable to speak or has emotional barriers to speaking. Sometimes accompanies deafness.
mutism, elective,
n a continual refusal to speak in children who have a confirmed capacity to articulate.

Patient discussion about mutism

Q. clonex symptoms in Selective Mutism Syndrome children My son is 6.5 years old, with selective mutism syndrome - in a months time he shall be entering first grade. We have, the past 2 years been with therapists specializing in this field. He has improved outside a closed system i.e. within the kindergarten (primarily) we even see some regression. We have been at major dilemmas with giving him medication but due to the critical time - we were recommended to take 0.125 mg of Clonex medication. we are a little worried and would like to understand the possible symptoms

A. As a benzodiazepin, it can cause drowsiness, weakness and other changes in behavior. There may be some other side-effects, that you can read about here (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682279.html)

More discussions about mutism
References in periodicals archive ?
For the past four years, Isla has suffered with selective mutism, a growing and devastating anxiety-based mental health disorder.
While selective mutism is a daunting challenge for parents, professionals, and schools, there is an upside.
Suffering from a debilitating anxiety disorder, children with Selective Mutism (SM) cannot speak in social settings although they can speak normally in comfortable environments - usually at home.
For thousands of soldiers in the Great War, the fear, paranoia, hysterical crying, terrible nightmares, mutism, fatigue, facial tics, and tremors were symptomatic of shell shock.
Her mum said: "We didn't know how Ashley was going to react, because of the selective mutism, but when she got in the store, the girls saw Gary and they left me behind and raced towards him.
Social mutism refers to the lack of public opinion based on the general and socially shared distrust of logical discourse and reluctance to use words in a clear and straightforward fashion:
Danielle's story IF YOU were to type "selective mutism" into google, you would probably be greeted by links to websites dening selective mutism (or SM) as the "failure to speak in certain social situations.
One young girl came on a holiday with selective mutism, rarely speaking at home and was very shy and anxious on the first day.
Anna was diagnosed with selective mutism, an anxiety disorder, at the age of three.
Nafziger and DeKruyf follow with an article describing narrative counseling, with general applications for school counselors and a specific example of narrative counseling used with a student with selective mutism.