As far back as the late 1800s, physicians had added musician's cramp
to the list of other occupational injuries (writer's cramp and telegrapher's cramp) being treated at the time.
Merzenich presented findings showing that focal dystonia of the hand, commonly known as writer's or musician's cramp
, is the result of a learning failure in the brain.
Botulinum toxin may also offer relief for several other speech disorders, including some stuttering conditions, and for occupational hand dystonias - such as writer's or musician's cramp
, in which intensive use of the hands leads to loss of control over the fingers.