muscular hypertrophy

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Related to muscular hypertrophy: muscular atrophy, muscular hyperplasia

muscular hypertrophy (musˑ·ky·lr hīˈ·pr·trōˑ·fē),

n a condition involving enlargement of muscles. May be induced pathologically or nonpathologically, as in weight training.


1. pertaining to a muscle.
2. having well developed muscles.

muscular asymmetry
due usually to neuronal or disuse atrophy on one side of the body.
muscular atrophy
wasting away of muscle or a muscle because of reduction in cross sectional area of muscle fibers; may be due to disease of the muscle or its nerve supply, or to disuse or nutritional inadequacy. See also hereditary spinal muscular atrophy (below).
muscular degeneration
varies in severity from degeneration of only the myofibrils or degeneration of the myofibrils plus sarcoplasm, leaving satellite cells and myonuclei and sarcolemmal laminae unaffected, or further levels of increasing severity.
muscular denervation
destruction or congenital absence of the motor nerve supply to the muscle; manifested by paralysis and atrophy and absence of spinal reflexes.
muscular denervation atrophy
progressive shrinkage of muscle fibers when the nerve supply to the muscle is severed.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
an X-linked inherited disease in humans, which is believed to be due to a deficiency of a membrane-associated protein, dystrophin. An analogous disease has been identified in Irish terriers, Golden retrievers and mice.
muscular dystrophy
any degenerative muscular disorder due to faulty nutrition of the muscles. Causes muscle weakness, liberation of myoglobin into the circulation from skeletal muscle and subsequent wasting and possible contracture. In humans there are a group of genetically determined, painless, degenerative myopathies that are progressively crippling because muscles are gradually weakened and eventually atrophy. In food animals the principal disease in this group is enzootic muscular dystrophy caused by a nutritional deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E. Sporadic cases of muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology occur rarely in dogs.
muscular fascicle
muscular fasciculation
muscular fatigue
during brief, intense exercise probably due in large part to the accumulation of lactate.
hereditary spinal muscular atrophy
progressive degeneration of the motor cells of the spinal cord. It is an inherited, slowly progressive flaccid tetraparesis from an early age, with muscular atrophy. Occurs as an autosomal recessive trait in Swedish lapland dogs, a dominant trait in Brittany spaniels. Also reported in German shepherd dogs, English pointers and Rottweilers. See also hereditary neuronal abiotrophy of Swedish Lapland dogs. In cattle, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and reported in Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian and Red Danish calves with an onset at 3 to 8 weeks of age. There is hind limb ataxia progressing to recumbancy. Associated with lesions in the lower motor neurons of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord.
muscular hernia
hernia through an enclosing muscle sheath.
muscular hyperplasia
an increase in the size of a muscle mass due to an increase in the number of muscle cells. See also myofiber hyperplasia, ileal muscular hypertrophy.
muscular hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a muscle mass due to an increase in the length and thickness of each muscle cell without any increase in the number of cells.
muscular ischemia
short duration or temporary or partial cessation of blood supply causes loss of muscle power and possibly some muscle fiber necrosis; long duration or severe or complete cessation cause ischemic muscle necrosis and atrophy. See also compartment syndrome, downer cow syndrome.
muscular ischemic necrosis
see ischemic myonecrosis.
muscular mineralization
ectopic deposition of minerals in muscle. See mineralization.
myelopathic muscular atrophy
muscular atrophy due to a lesion of the spinal cord, as in spinal muscular atrophy.
nutritional muscular dystrophy
see muscular dystrophy (above).
muscular parasitic diseases
includes cysticercosis, hepatozoonosis, Neosprum caninum myositis, sarcocystosis, toxoplasmosis, trichenellosis.
muscular receptors
muscle spindles which respond to stretch.
muscular steatosis
excess fat deposits in muscle; a problem only at meat hygiene inspection.
muscular vascular occlusive syndrome
see ischemic myonecrosis.
muscular weakness
X-linked muscular dystrophy
see Duchenne muscular dystrophy (above).
References in periodicals archive ?
Guthrie K J: Idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of the oesophagus, pylorus, duodenum and jejunum in a young girl.
Moreover, the haplotypes 2 and 8 belonged exclusively to the double-muscling flocks, while the other haplotypes with low phenotypic score were present mainly in the breeds with less muscular hypertrophy.
In this study, the association of the haplotypes consisting of the former four SNPs with sheep ADG was further analyzed, and the Haplo2 (CGAA) and 8 (TGAA), containing three main base transitions (a T [right arrow] C at position -956, a C [right arrow] A at position -41 and a G [right arrow] A at position 6223), were identified to be strongly associated with muscular hypertrophy traits.
Combining the analysis of the SNPs, haplotypes, phenotypic scores and ADG in our study, the conclusions were that the 6223 G [right arrow] A SNP and -41 C [right arrow] A, which involved Haplo2 and 8, were strongly associated with double muscling and may be responsible for the trait of muscular hypertrophy.
1995) have shown that combining aerobic training with resistance exercise negatively affected resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy.
Since no changes were observed in the medial gastrocnemius muscle mass or the muscle per body mass ratio after 5 exercise sessions, we conclude that 5 exercise sessions are inadequate to cause muscular hypertrophy in this model system.
Since the timing of increase in IGF-1 mRNA was associated with significant muscular hypertrophy, we hypothesize that the activation of IGF-1 plays a role in the onset of muscle hypertrophy during chronic strength exercise.
reported that activation of the IGF-1 receptor was not necessary for muscular hypertrophy and had no influence on the activation of Akt and p70S6k (Spangenburg et al.