muscular hypertrophy

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Related to muscular hypertrophy: muscular atrophy, muscular hyperplasia

muscular hypertrophy (musˑ·ky·lr hīˈ·pr·trōˑ·fē),

n a condition involving enlargement of muscles. May be induced pathologically or nonpathologically, as in weight training.


1. pertaining to a muscle.
2. having well developed muscles.

muscular asymmetry
due usually to neuronal or disuse atrophy on one side of the body.
muscular atrophy
wasting away of muscle or a muscle because of reduction in cross sectional area of muscle fibers; may be due to disease of the muscle or its nerve supply, or to disuse or nutritional inadequacy. See also hereditary spinal muscular atrophy (below).
muscular degeneration
varies in severity from degeneration of only the myofibrils or degeneration of the myofibrils plus sarcoplasm, leaving satellite cells and myonuclei and sarcolemmal laminae unaffected, or further levels of increasing severity.
muscular denervation
destruction or congenital absence of the motor nerve supply to the muscle; manifested by paralysis and atrophy and absence of spinal reflexes.
muscular denervation atrophy
progressive shrinkage of muscle fibers when the nerve supply to the muscle is severed.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
an X-linked inherited disease in humans, which is believed to be due to a deficiency of a membrane-associated protein, dystrophin. An analogous disease has been identified in Irish terriers, Golden retrievers and mice.
muscular dystrophy
any degenerative muscular disorder due to faulty nutrition of the muscles. Causes muscle weakness, liberation of myoglobin into the circulation from skeletal muscle and subsequent wasting and possible contracture. In humans there are a group of genetically determined, painless, degenerative myopathies that are progressively crippling because muscles are gradually weakened and eventually atrophy. In food animals the principal disease in this group is enzootic muscular dystrophy caused by a nutritional deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E. Sporadic cases of muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology occur rarely in dogs.
muscular fascicle
muscular fasciculation
muscular fatigue
during brief, intense exercise probably due in large part to the accumulation of lactate.
hereditary spinal muscular atrophy
progressive degeneration of the motor cells of the spinal cord. It is an inherited, slowly progressive flaccid tetraparesis from an early age, with muscular atrophy. Occurs as an autosomal recessive trait in Swedish lapland dogs, a dominant trait in Brittany spaniels. Also reported in German shepherd dogs, English pointers and Rottweilers. See also hereditary neuronal abiotrophy of Swedish Lapland dogs. In cattle, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and reported in Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian and Red Danish calves with an onset at 3 to 8 weeks of age. There is hind limb ataxia progressing to recumbancy. Associated with lesions in the lower motor neurons of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord.
muscular hernia
hernia through an enclosing muscle sheath.
muscular hyperplasia
an increase in the size of a muscle mass due to an increase in the number of muscle cells. See also myofiber hyperplasia, ileal muscular hypertrophy.
muscular hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a muscle mass due to an increase in the length and thickness of each muscle cell without any increase in the number of cells.
muscular ischemia
short duration or temporary or partial cessation of blood supply causes loss of muscle power and possibly some muscle fiber necrosis; long duration or severe or complete cessation cause ischemic muscle necrosis and atrophy. See also compartment syndrome, downer cow syndrome.
muscular ischemic necrosis
see ischemic myonecrosis.
muscular mineralization
ectopic deposition of minerals in muscle. See mineralization.
myelopathic muscular atrophy
muscular atrophy due to a lesion of the spinal cord, as in spinal muscular atrophy.
nutritional muscular dystrophy
see muscular dystrophy (above).
muscular parasitic diseases
includes cysticercosis, hepatozoonosis, Neosprum caninum myositis, sarcocystosis, toxoplasmosis, trichenellosis.
muscular receptors
muscle spindles which respond to stretch.
muscular steatosis
excess fat deposits in muscle; a problem only at meat hygiene inspection.
muscular vascular occlusive syndrome
see ischemic myonecrosis.
muscular weakness
X-linked muscular dystrophy
see Duchenne muscular dystrophy (above).
References in periodicals archive ?
In association with the discussion of intensity of effort, we should consider how the load lifted (%1RM) or the number of repetitions performed affects muscular hypertrophy.
The most common location of muscular hypertrophy of the gastrointestinal tract in adults is in a short segment of the oesophagus; usually occurring in elderly white men(1).
In order to estimate the association between haplotype and degree of muscular hypertrophy, we established a general linear model to analyze fixed effects of breed, family within breed, haplotypes within family within breed, birth weight, sex and age on ADG (from birth to six month).
They noted that Goldberg and colleagues (17) concluded in their review of compensatory hypertrophy in frogs, chickens, rabbits, mice and rats that tension was the critical stimulus for muscular hypertrophy.
When the purpose is to enhance muscular hypertrophy, the intensities used are between 70% to 85% of 1RM, 8 to 12 repetitions, and 1 to 3 sets of each exercise followed by 1 to 2 min of recovery.
Instead there is no availability of scientific studies affirming or supporting a process of weight loss, of defects reduction, and/or of muscular hypertrophy in the times and ways described by advertising messages of companies selling vibrating platforms.
Both legs showed muscular hypertrophy, and the patient acknowledged following an intensive exercise regimen and using nandrolone and boldenone.
End result: a trimmer, firmer physique, with either a slight or no change in body weight, but considerably less muscular hypertrophy than by men.
Extremities showed deformed shape with prominent muscular hypertrophy, Bilateral exophthalmos was seen.
Thus, the present study supports the idea that future investigations should be carried out to evaluate the role of the FT exercises in promoting muscular hypertrophy.
High-volume resistance training sessions with short to moderate recovery between sets (<3 min) are common practices employed for muscular hypertrophy (Kraemer et al.
Credible supporting evidence would have been comparative resistance training studies where two groups elicited significantly different exercise induced acute hormonal responses and produced significant differences in chronic adaptations such as muscular hypertrophy or strength gains.