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a coming into being; the act or process of being born.
birth certificate a written, authenticated record of the birth of a child, required by state laws throughout the United States. After a birth is registered, a birth certificate is issued which represents legal proof of parentage, age, and citizenship, and is of great personal and legal importance. A birth certificate is required for many legal and business or personal transactions. Whether the child is born at home or at the hospital, the physician, midwife, or other attendant must report the birth to the local or state registrar. The report becomes a permanent record, and a certificate is issued to the parents. If a child dies during birth, an immediate report and certification of the birth and death are required, containing a statement of the cause of death.
birth control the concept of limiting the size of families by measures designed to prevent conception. The movement of that name began in modern times as a humanitarian reform to conserve the health of mothers and the welfare of children, especially among the poor. More recently it has been superseded by the term family planning, which means planning the arrival of children to correspond with the desire and resources of the married couple. See also contraception.
multiple birth the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
premature birth (preterm birth) expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become possible; defined as birth occurring before 37 completed weeks (295 days), counting from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. Approximately 6 to 8 per cent of all live births in the United States are premature, and premature births are the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.
multiple birthA pregnancy resulting in the birth of two or more infants.
multiple birthReproduction medicine A pregnancy resulting in birth of ≥ 2 infants. See Clomifen, Higher multiple.
a coming into being; the act or process of being born. See also parturition.
the canal through which the fetus passes in birth; comprising the uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
see congenital defects.
occurs to the fetus during birth. Includes rib fracture and meningeal hemorrhage.
the interval between succeeding parturitions. See also calving interval.
the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
the chronological order of births in a multiple birth. May have significance in causing stillbirths if the intervals between births are prolonged because of inertia.
expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become a possibility. In humans prematurity is defined as a pregnancy of less than 37 weeks in a pregnancy normally lasting 40 weeks.
comprises maturation of the fetus, relaxation of the bony pelvis and associated ligaments, softening and relaxation of the cervix, vagina, vulva and perineum, correct disposition of the fetus, contractions of the uterine myometrium and finally the only component under voluntary control, contraction of the abdominal muscles.
stature, including height at withers, crown to tail head length at birth.
the weight at birth. A significant determinant of survival in any species and of the occurrence of dystocia. See also prolonged gestation.
manifold; occurring in various parts of the body at once.
more than one offspring in a gestation and parturition.
a disease in which a combination, or alternative combinations, of causes, are required to produce it. Called also multifactorial etiology.
surgical instruments, e.g. heavy duty emasculators, ecraseurs in which each jaw has more than one crushing surface, mounted one behind the other, each successive surface coming into contact with its counterpart as increasing pressure is applied to the handles of the instrument.
a method of reproduction in protozoa. See schizogony.
simultaneous infection with more than one virus or a combination of virus and bacteria may be caused by one agent lowering resistance to the other. There may be synergism between the agents.
multiple least squares regression
the major method of analysis used to sort through a large number of potential risk factors permitting the examination of one factor while the other factors in the regression equation are held mathematically constant.
multiple limb defects
patients with more than one congenital limb defect.
see multiple myeloma.
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
in critical care medicine, a state in which intervention is required to maintain homeostasis. Called also MODS.
an important feature in the technique of embryo transfer. See superovulation.
twins, triplets and more in usually uniparous species.
an analytical method which determines the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
situations in which more than one risk factor for a disease is present and their combined presence contributes to an increased risk.
when a cow accepts more calves to suckle than her own; a system for foster-rearing of orphan or purchased calves.