mucosal immune system

mucosal immune system

[myo̅o̅kō′səl]
the lymphoid tissues of the mucosal surfaces lining the GI, respiratory, and urogenital tracts.

mucosal immune system

Clusters of lymphoid cells beneath the mucosal endothelium of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts that help protect the body from inhaled, consumed, or sexually transmitted infections. The system has two parts: organized and diffuse. The organized part (the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts) is composed of nodules containing lymphocytes and macrophages that are activated by ingested or inhaled microorganisms. The diffuse part is composed of loose clusters of macrophages and mature B and T lymphocytes found within the folds of the intestinal walls. The B cells secrete antibodies, primarily immunoglobulin A; the T cells directly lyse microorganisms.

The mucosal immune system is augmented by the presence of normal microflora; by peristalsis and cilia, which move mucus outward; and by various chemicals, such as gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes, which destroy pathogens. Normally all of these components must be functioning to prevent infection.

References in periodicals archive ?
The text examines the commonalities of the mucosal immune system and features detailed coverage of the major components of the gastrointestinal, upper and lower respiratory, ocular, and genitourinary mucosal immune systems.
Pets receive two to three squirts per day inside the cheek, where allergens are absorbed and processed by the mucosal immune system to induce tolerance to the common offending allergens.
We are excited about commencing this study, which utilizes the mucosal immune system and thus offers significant potential to protect large numbers of individuals by administering enhanced flu vaccines.
4) This represents an area of increasing research as the role of the mucosal immune system becomes attributed to persistent para-inflammation and the degenerative conditions associated with it.
We have been able to validate experimentally some of the key events that take place in the regulation of the mucosal immune system when inflammatory bowel disease is triggered in mice," said Josep Bassaganya-Riera, associate professor of immunology at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, leader of the Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Group in the institute's CyberInfrastructure Division.
Moreover, recent reports suggest that the preference of HIV for the GI mucosal immune system may in part be due to HIV-1 selectively binding to a molecule that helps to direct T cells to the gut: the integrin [alpha]4[beta]7 molecule [22].
Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease have revealed intriguing observations, namely the so-called north-south gradient of Crohn's disease (2), in a genetically predisposed individual, Crohn's disease results due to dysregulated response of mucosal immune system to intraluminal antigens of bacterial origin.
A focus will be the impact of bacteria on the gut epithelium and the mucosal immune system and the impact of stress-related hormones, such as noradrenaline, on the bacterial community.
At the 2003 symposium held in London, international participants discussed the latest advances in understanding the interplay of genetics, gut bacteria, and the impaired epithelial barrier and mucosal immune system in IBD.
The migrated lymphocytes, of which the functions are modulated by the active ingredients of TJ-48 in Peyer's patches, are postulated to regulate the systemic and mucosal immune system through cytokines such as IL-6 and GMCSF.
Harold Buttram stated that vaccines actually weaken a child's mucosal immune system.
The developmental events occurring during this postnatal period are the same events that begin before birth and include cytodifferentiation of epithelial and interstitial cell populations, morphogenesis and reorganization of the gas exchange area, and the development of the respiratory mucosal immune system.