motor neuron disease


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motor

 [mo´ter]
1. pertaining to motion.
2. a muscle, nerve, or center that effects movements.

mo·tor neu·ron dis·ease (MND),

2. in the plural (that is, diseases) a generic term for a heterogenous group of disorders, all affecting motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord, or both, including spinal muscle atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar paralysis, and primary lateral sclerosis.

motor neuron disease

Etymology: L, movere, to move, neuron, nerve; L, dis + Fr, aise, ease
any disease of a motor neuron, with degeneration of anterior horn cells, motor cranial nerve nuclei, and pyramidal tracts. An example is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

motor neuron disease

Neurology Any of a group of conditions characterized by progressive degeneration and dysfunction of the motor neuron or anterior horn cell–eg, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis–ALS; the terms are difficult to differentiate, and thus used interchangeably; the classic or sporadic form has an incidence rate of 2/105, characterized by upper limb weakness, atrophy, focal neurologic signs See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

mo·tor neu·ron dis·ease

(mō'tŏr nūr'on di-zēz')
A general term comprising progressive spinal muscular atrophy (infantile, juvenile, and adult), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar paralysis, and primary lateral sclerosis; frequently a familial disease.

motor neuron disease

A rare disorder of unknown cause in which MOTOR nerve cells suffer gradual and progressive destruction. The condition is rare before the age of 40 and affects men twice as often as women. The initial symptoms depend on which neurons are first involved and include difficulty in swallowing and speaking, or wasting and weakness of the small muscles of the hands spreading to involve the forearms and later the legs. Progressive worsening leads to widespread paralysis of the whole body. Intellectual function is never affected. There is no known treatment. Also known as motor neurone disease.

mo·tor neu·ron dis·ease

(MND) (mō'tŏr nūr'on di-zēz')
2. In the plural (i.e., diseases) generic term for heterogenous group of disorders, all affecting motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord, or both.

motor neuron

a neuron having a motor function; an efferent neuron conveying motor impulses.

motor neuron disease
equine motor neuronn. disease
(EMND) a syndrome of mature horses of uncertain etiology, but possibly an oxidative disorder associated with insufficient green forage in the diet and a deficiency of vitamin E. Characterized by generalized weakness, muscle fasciculations and weight loss, despite a normal appetite, that is caused by neurogenic muscle atrophy. There is also a distinctive retinopathy.
lower motor neuron n's
peripheral neurons whose cell bodies lie in the ventral gray columns of the spinal cord and whose terminations are in skeletal muscles. Called also LMN. See also lower motor neuron.
peripheral motor neuron n's
neurons in a peripheral reflex arc that receive impulses from interneurons and transmit them to voluntary muscles.
upper motor neuron n's
neurons in the cerebral cortex that conduct impulses from the motor cortex to the motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves or to the ventral gray columns of the spinal cord. Lesions of the upper motor neuron interrupt the inhibitory effect that upper motor neurons have on lower motor neurons, resulting in exaggerated or hyperactive reflexes. This is called also extensor rigidity. See also upper motor neuron. Called also UMN.
References in periodicals archive ?
Establishing new neuromuscular connections over distances of a couple of centimetres in a young mouse is very different from attempting the same in human motor neuron diseases, especially in adults where the transplanted neurons may have to grow up to a metre to reach their target.
Siddharthan Chandran, director of the Euan MacDonald Centre for Motor Neuron Disease Research at the University of Edinburgh.
We are eager to see if the initial proof-of-concept obtained thus far in the pilot trial of the BrainGate System for those with spinal cord injury (SCI) can be extended to persons with ALS and other motor neuron diseases.
The goals of this study are to investigate the safety and feasibility of the BrainGate(TM) System in people living with ALS or other motor neuron diseases," commented Leigh R.
Innovative therapies based on this technology could exert strong therapeutic effects through a unique dual mode of action that targets key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease as well as other major diseases including Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease and stroke," said Dr.
In recent years animal models of ALS, including mice carrying the SOD1 mutations, and other mice with motor neuron disease, have provided a unique opportunity to unravel genes relevant to the degeneration of neurons in the disease, and perhaps more importantly, the identification of neuro-protective genes.
Muscle deterioration accompanies the muscular dystrophies, motor neuron disease, and myasthenia gravis, as well as the simple immobilization that occurs following the casting of a broken limb or that accompanies prolonged hospital stays.
Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are characterized by gradual and progressive degeneration and death of motor neurons.
Our intention is to systematically screen for new mechanisms, targets and compounds that have the potential to be developed into new products that will modify and ideally halt the progression of ALS and potentially other motor neuron diseases," said Cord Dohrmann, chief scientific officer of Evotec.
A second pilot study is currently enrolling individuals with ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's disease) or other motor neuron diseases at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
In August 2005, Cyberkinetics received regulatory clearance to conduct a pilot clinical trial for those with progressive motor neuron diseases, including ALS.
In a second pilot trial announced August 22, 2005, researchers are testing the BrainGate System in those with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's disease) and other motor neuron diseases.