motor area


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area

 [a´re-ah] (pl. a´reae, areas) (L.)
a limited space or plane surface.
acoustic a's auditory areas.
association a's areas of the cerebral cortex (excluding primary areas) connected with each other and with the neothalamus; they are responsible for higher mental and emotional processes, including memory, learning, speech, and the interpretation of sensations.
Area. Functional areas and lobes of the cerebrum.
auditory a's two contiguous areas of the temporal lobe in the region of the anterior transverse temporal gyrus, known as the primary and secondary auditory areas. Called also acoustic areas.
Broca's motor speech area an area comprising parts of the opercular and triangular portions of the inferior frontal gyrus; injury to this area may result in motor aphasia.
Broca's parolfactory area a small area of cortex on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere, between the anterior and posterior parolfactory sulci. Called also area subcallosa.
Brodmann's a's specific occipital and preoccipital areas of the cerebral cortex, distinguished by differences in the arrangement of their six cellular layers, and identified by numbering each area. They are considered to be the seat of specific functions of the brain.
catchment area
1. the geographical region drained by one body of water.
2. the area whose residents are served by a specialized health care agency. Called also catchment.
contact area proximal surface.
embryonic area (germinal area) (area germinati´va) embryonic disk.
Kiesselbach's area an area on the anterior part of the nasal septum, richly supplied with capillaries, and a common site of epistaxis (nosebleed).
language area any nerve center of the cerebral cortex, usually in the dominant hemisphere, controlling the understanding or use of language.
motor area any area of the cerebral cortex primarily involved in stimulating muscle contractions; most are in the precentral gyri. See also premotor area, sensorimotor area, and Broca's motor speech area.
motor speech area see Broca's motor speech area and Wernicke's area.
occupational performance a's categories of activities that make up an individual's occupational performance; they include activities of daily living, work activities, and play or leisure activities. A delay in any of these areas may be addressed by occupational therapy intervention.
olfactory area
1. a general area of the brain, including the olfactory bulb, tract, and trigone, the anterior portion of the gyrus cinguli, and the uncus.
postcentral area (postrolandic area) an area just posterior to the central sulcus of the cerebral hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for general sensations.
precentral area primary somatomotor area.
premotor area an area of the motor cortex of the frontal lobe immediately in front of the precentral gyrus.
primary area areas of the cerebral cortex comprising the motor and sensory regions.
primary receiving a's the areas of the cerebral cortex that receive the thalamic projections of the primary sensory modalities such as vision, hearing, and smell. Called also sensory areas.
primary somatomotor area an area in the posterior part of the frontal lobe just anterior to the central sulcus; different regions control motor activity of specific parts of the body. Called also precentral area and rolandic area.
projection a's those areas of the cerebral cortex that receive the most direct projection of the sensory systems of the body.
sensorimotor area the cortex of the precentral and postcentral gyri, which are the motor area and the primary receiving area for general sensations, respectively.
sensory a's primary receiving areas.
sensory association area an association area around the borders of a primary receiving area, where sensory stimuli are interpreted.
silent area an area of the brain in which pathologic conditions may occur without producing symptoms.
somatic sensory area (somatosensory area) either of two cortical projection areas in or near the postcentral gyrus where conscious perception of somatic sensations occurs, known as the first or primary somatosensory area and the second or secondary somatosensory area.
area subcallo´sa (subcallosal area) Broca's parolfactory area.
area under the curve (AUC) the area enclosed between the curve of a probability with nonnegative values and the axis of the quality being measured; of the total area under a curve, the proportion that falls between two given points on the curve defines a probability density function.
visual a's three areas (first, second, and third visual areas) of the visual cortex. The first visual area is better known as the striate cortex.
vocal area rima glottidis.
Wernicke's area originally a name for a speech center thought to be confined to the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus next to the transverse temporal gyri; the term now refers to a wider zone that also includes the supramarginal and angular gyri.

mo·tor cor·tex

the region of the cerebral cortex most nearly immediately influencing movements of the face, neck and trunk, and upper and lower extremities; it corresponds approximately to Brodmann areas 4 and 6 of the precentral gyrus and anterior paracentral gyrus, and immediately adjacent portions of the superior and middle frontal gyri; its effects on the motor neurons innervating the skeletal musculature are mediated by corticospinal fibers (pyramidal tract) and corticonuclear fibers and are particularly essential for the human capacity to perform finely graded movements of the extremities, especially the upper.

motor area

a portion of the cerebral cortex that includes the precentral gyrus and the posterior part of the frontal gyri and that causes the contraction of the voluntary muscles on stimulation with electrodes. Normal voluntary activity requires associations between the motor area and other parts of the cortex; removal of the motor area from one cerebral hemisphere causes paralysis of voluntary muscles, especially of the opposite side of the body. Various parts of the motor area are associated with different body structures, such as the lower limb, the face, the mouth, and the hand. The parts associated with more delicate, complicated movements, such as those of the hand, are larger than those associated with more general movements.

mo·tor cor·tex

(mō'tŏr kōr'teks)
The region of the cerebral cortex most immediately influencing movements of the face, neck, trunk, arms, and legs; its effects on the motor neurons innervating the skeletal musculature are mediated by the pyramidal tract.
Synonym(s): excitable area, motor area, Rolando area.

area

pl. areae, areas [L.] a limited space or plane surface.

association a's
areas of the cerebral cortex (excluding primary areas) connected with each other and with the neothalamus; they are responsible for higher mental and emotional processes, including memory, learning, etc.
Brodmann's a's
specific occipital and preoccipital areas of the cerebral cortex, distinguished by differences in the arrangement of their six cellular layers, and identified by numbering each area.
cardiogenic area
in the embryo includes heart and pericardial rudiments.
central retinal area
the area of the retina, dorsal to the optic papilla, along the optical axis. Here the retinal vessels are missing.
In cattle the area is poorly defined as two areas; a rounded area concerned with binocular vision and a horizontal strip concerned wuth monocular vision.
area cerebrovasculosa
in anencephaly the cerebral hemispheres are replaced by a sheet of tissue composed largely of blood vessels called the area cerebrovasculosa.
area cribrosa
that part of the renal crest or renal papilla at which the papillary ducts open into the pelvis.
germinal area, area germinativa
embryonic disk.
area medullovasculosa
the central part of a spinal meningomyelocele. It is a raised, reddish protuberance devoid of skin and consists of spinal cord with a surrounding vascular network.
motor area
that area of the cerebral cortex which, on brief electrical stimulation, shows the lowest threshold and shortest latency for the production of muscle movement.
area nuda
an area on the surface of a viscus that has no serosal covering.
olfactory area
1. the part of the piriform lobe of the brain associated with olfaction.
2. a more general area including the olfactory bulb, tract and trigone.
area opaca
the opaque area of the embryonic disk of the fertilized avian egg surrounding the area pellucida; it forms some extraembryonic structures.
area pellucida
the clear central part of the developing embryonic disk in a fertilized avian egg. Produces the embryo's tissues.
area piriformis temporalis
the cortical area of the piriform lobe of the brain.
primary area
areas of the cerebral cortex comprising the motor and sensory regions.
psychomotor area
motor area.
area sampling
see area sampling.
silent area
an area of the brain in which pathological conditions may occur without producing clinical signs.
vocal area
the part of the glottis between the vocal cords.
References in periodicals archive ?
Liepert J, Tegenthoff M and Malin J (1995): Changes of cortical motor area size during immobilization.
Based on inverted writing in non-mirror transformations, such tasks excite supplementary motor areas (Zelu & Sale, 1994).
Evidence is emerging that implicates cortical areas, such as the mouth presentation in the primary motor cortex (M1, Brodmann's area 4, BA 4), Broca's area (left inferior frontal region), the supplementary motor area (SMA, also known as Penfield's area), Brodmann's area 6 (BA 6, which is the SMA and superior lateral premotor region), the inferior lateral premotor cortex (BA 6/44), Wernicke's area, the auditory processing system, which includes the primary auditory cortex (BA 41/42), the auditory association cortex (BA 21/22), the anterior insula, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as well as the somatic sensory area (Brodal, 1981:835; Fox et al.
They found that groups with substance misuse had less activation in the stop success orbital, the stop success right frontal, and the stop success presupple-mentary motor area networks.
Police said they arrested nearly two dozen opposition activists in sporadic incidents of clashes when the pickets also set a police motorcycle on fire at central Bangla Motor area.
used single photon emission computed tomography to show that several brain areas were active during overground walking in healthy subjects, including supplementary motor area (SMA), medial primary somatosensory cortex (S1), striatum, cerebellum, and visual cortex [57].
There is a general agreement within the literature that, as in the cerebral cortex, input is somatotopically organized, although Holmes does describe it as a rudimentary organization, being much less spatially resolved than within the motor area of the cortex.
But with memory tasks, like map reading, men show more activity than women in the brain region known as the supplementary motor area.
A major projection site of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia is the supplementary motor area (SMA).
The dosage of rTMS is calculated as a percentage of the intensity needed to produce a muscle twitch from at least 50% of the signals in a 10-signal stimulus when the coil is placed over a motor area.
Her seizures had never been accompanied by laughter, but as soon as the current struck the left superior frontal gyrus - part of the human supplementary motor area - she collapsed in hysterics.
In August, Brown University scientists reported that two specific frequencies, fast-sigma and delta, that operated in the supplementary motor area of the brain were directly associated with learning a finger-tapping task akin to typing or playing the piano.