Allele patterns for CHMs were consistent with monospermy in 25 cases (81%) and dispermy in 6 cases (19%) (Figure 1).
Monospermy was the most frequently observed mechanism for CHM (81%), whereas dispermy was always observed for PHM, consistent with previous studies.
Results of Microsatellite Genotyping for 102 Cases Nonmolar N 54 Monospermy 0 Dispermy 0 Additional abnormalities Trisomy 7 (n = 1) Trisomy 8 and trisomy 18 (n = 1) Trisomy 13 (n = 1) Trisomy 16 (n = 7) Trisomy 21 (n = 1) Androgenetic/biparental mosaicism (n = 1) Cross-contamination Fetal (n = 2) Maternal (n = 2) Average No.
In pigs, high sperm concentration and POEC increase oocyte penetrability and decrease monospermy rates when sperm pre-culture with POEC is limited to 2 hr; the presence of POEC during IVF increased the rate of monospermy.
In porcine, the oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OVGP1) increases the rate of monospermy in in vitro fertilized oocytes through induction of zona hardening and interaction with spermatozoa (42).