Tenofovir-associated Fanconi syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis B monoinfection
But it's important to recognize that patients with hepatitis C infection are at increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular events, and people with HCV/HIV coinfection may be at higher risk than people with HIV monoinfection
Socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, reasons for being HIV tested, and the clinical and immunological features of patients were analyzed in the following four groups of patients: HIV monoinfection
, HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV, and HIV/HBV/HCV infected patients.
Only patients diagnosed with chronic HCV monoinfection
and have anti HCV antibodies by ELISA were selected to undergo Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) treated with combined pegylatedinterferon--alfa (PEG-IFN[+ or -])-ribavirin therapy.
Is it only a monoinfection
or are other microorganisms involved in the infection?
Hepatotoxicity in HIV-1 monoinfection
strongly correlates with CD4+ counts  and HIV coinfection can aggravate HCV-related liver damage  via mechanisms that include losses of CD4+ T helper cells and neutralizing antibodies , dysfunction of dendritic cells (DCs) , iron overload , and possibly oxidative stress.
For instance, Hinkin, Castellon, Levine, Barclay, and Singer (2008) examined 83 adults with HIV and 35 adults with HTV coinfected with hepatitis C to determine the impact of monoinfection
and coinfection on cognition.
Etiological structure of PVI was determined in 325 positive cases of which 143 cases were monoinfection
and 182 cases were polyinfection (148 cases with 2 species of viruses, 15 cases--3 species of viruses, 19 cases--3 species of viruses).
The adverse events were also similar to those seen in patients with monoinfection
In the overwhelming majority of cases the viral infections in children were developing as monoinfection
(in 473 from 595 patients) and rarely as mixed-infection (in 122 patients).
The bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei was subsequently isolated as a monoinfection
from the original aspirate by bacterial culture, phenotypic methods and confirmed with 16S rRNA.
Co-infection with HDV which is diagnosed in about 5% of cases increases the severity of the disease doubling the frequency of complications and mortality rate, compared to monoinfection