monoclonal gammopathy


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mon·o·clo·nal gam·mop·a·thy

any one of a group of disorders due to proliferation of a single clone of lymphoid or plasma cells and characterized by the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum or urine (visible on electrophoresis as a single peak).

monoclonal gammopathy

monoclonal gammopathy

A condition characterized by the clonal proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing B cells
Monoclonal gammopathy types
Malignant
Multiple myeloma
Variants of multiple myeoloma
• Solitary plasmacytoma of bone
• Extramedullary plasmacytoma
• Plasma cell leukemia
• Non-secretory myeloma
Lymphoproliferative disorders
• Waldenström's macroglobulinemia
• Lymphoma
Heavy chain disease (γ, α, μ)
Amyloidosis
Of undetermined significance
Benign (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or light chains)
Associated neoplasms that rarely produce monoclonal proteins
Biclonal gammopathies  

gammopathy

abnormal proliferation of the B lymphocytes resulting in abnormal levels of immunoglobulin production; the gammopathies include multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia and Hodgkin's disease. Called also gammaglobulinopathy.

monoclonal gammopathy
an increased production of one type of immunoglobulin by a single clone of cells. The abnormal protein produced is called paraprotein or M component and may be composed of whole immunoglobulin molecules or subunits, light-chains (Bence Jones proteins) or heavy-chains. Occurs in myelomas, lymphoproliferative neoplasms, and occasionally chronic inflammatory or immune-mediated diseases. Greatly elevated serum levels of protein may result in a hyperviscosity syndrome.
polyclonal gammopathy
a hypergammaglobulinemia resulting from an increased production of several different immunoglobulins and usually attributable to persistent, high level exposure to antigens; occur in a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, and immune-mediated diseases. Examples in animals are feline infectious peritonitis, canine ehrlichiosis, Aleutian mink disease and equine infectious anemia.

monoclonal

derived from a single cell; pertaining to a single clone.

monoclonal antibodies
identical immunoglobulin molecules formed by a single clone of plasma cells; may occur naturally in plasma cell myelomas or in vitro by the fusion of an antibody producing B lymphocyte with a non-antibody-producing myeloma B cell. The fused heterokaryon has the properties of immortality and production of a monoclonal antibody. For the most part, monoclonal antibodies are made in mouse systems.
monoclonal gammopathy
see monoclonal gammopathy.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pesticide exposure and risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in the Agricultural Health Study.
Using mass spectrometry to monitor monoclonal immunoglobulins in patients with monoclonal gammopathy.
Patterns of survival and causes of death following a diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a population-based study.
Similarly, while DDD [6,7] and C3GP [8] are much more common in children and young adults and are often associated with mutations in complement components or complement regulatory proteins (CRP), in adult patients with C3GP, 31% of patients were found to have a monoclonal gammopathy [9].
Serum protein electrophoresis or serum immunofixation electrophoresis are also recommended in patients over age 60, because monoclonal gammopathy is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy in this age group.
MYD88 (L265P) mutation is an independent risk factor for progression in patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Moreover, another prospective study (19) that focused on monoclonal gammopathy in SLE showed that no patient progressed to MM during the five-year study.
The most frequent diseases include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), both asymptomatic (smoldering) and symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), solitary plasmacytoma, and immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) [3].
Plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD) is a generic term for neoplastic lesions, which include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myeloma (MM), plasmacytoma, and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease.
However, there are some case reports and series containing a limited number of cases of hypogammaglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and multiple myeloma (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11).
Among the culprits are some conditions that are not often encountered in the average gynecologic practice: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myeloma, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory bowel diseases.

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