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any one of a group of disorders due to proliferation of a single clone of lymphoid or plasma cells and characterized by the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum or urine (visible on electrophoresis as a single peak).
monoclonal gammopathyA condition characterized by the clonal proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing B cells
Monoclonal gammopathy types
Variants of multiple myeoloma
• Solitary plasmacytoma of bone
• Extramedullary plasmacytoma
• Plasma cell leukemia
• Non-secretory myeloma
• Waldenström's macroglobulinemia
Heavy chain disease (γ, α, μ)
Of undetermined significance
Benign (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, or light chains)
Associated neoplasms that rarely produce monoclonal proteins
abnormal proliferation of the B lymphocytes resulting in abnormal levels of immunoglobulin production; the gammopathies include multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia and Hodgkin's disease. Called also gammaglobulinopathy.
an increased production of one type of immunoglobulin by a single clone of cells. The abnormal protein produced is called paraprotein or M component and may be composed of whole immunoglobulin molecules or subunits, light-chains (Bence Jones proteins) or heavy-chains. Occurs in myelomas, lymphoproliferative neoplasms, and occasionally chronic inflammatory or immune-mediated diseases. Greatly elevated serum levels of protein may result in a hyperviscosity syndrome.
a hypergammaglobulinemia resulting from an increased production of several different immunoglobulins and usually attributable to persistent, high level exposure to antigens; occur in a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, and immune-mediated diseases. Examples in animals are feline infectious peritonitis, canine ehrlichiosis, Aleutian mink disease and equine infectious anemia.
derived from a single cell; pertaining to a single clone.
identical immunoglobulin molecules formed by a single clone of plasma cells; may occur naturally in plasma cell myelomas or in vitro by the fusion of an antibody producing B lymphocyte with a non-antibody-producing myeloma B cell. The fused heterokaryon has the properties of immortality and production of a monoclonal antibody. For the most part, monoclonal antibodies are made in mouse systems.
see monoclonal gammopathy.