18) Tramadol has central analgesic effects due to monoaminergic
and preceptor agonistic activities.
There is a hypothesis that claims that the monoaminergic
deficits and lesions of frontal-subcortical circuits are the same in the brain of patients with PD and those with depression .
Fructus Aurantii induced antidepressant effect via its monoaminergic
mechanism and prokinetic action in rat.
Medical treatment: The investigators who think that the dopaminergic cell groups in the monoaminergic
pathways are important recommend use of bromocriptine to reverse the symptoms of akinetic mutism (11, 29).
projection systems may be more suited for exerting modulatory functions.
9) The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) exists in 2 isoforms (VMAT1 and VMAT2) that vary in distribution, with VMAT1 expressed mainly in the peripheral nervous system and VMAT2 expressed mainly in monoaminergic
cells of the central nervous system.
GABA-ergic and monoaminergic
mechanisms might play a major part.
Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of monoaminergic
These cells also express the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2), suggesting a role of monoaminergic
transmission in the regulation of ghrelin secretion (2).
The efficacy of antidepressants and other serotonin-modulating drugs in the treatment of migraine has suggested that monoaminergic
pathways are involved in the etiology of migraine," Dr.
It has also been demonstrated that methamphetamine damages monoaminergic
terminals and transporters in the striatum, both in humans and laboratory animals (Volkow, Chang, Wang, Fowler, Leonido-Yee, Franceschi, et al.
The action of these cytokines on the Central Nervous System (CNS) generates changes in behavior, the central monoaminergic
metabolism and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (Dantzer et al.