modelling


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

modelling

Physiology
The process of bone formation by osteoblasts and osteoclastic resorption, which ends with bone maturation.
 
Psychology
A normal process of personality development, in which a child learns appropriate social and cognitive behaviours by imitating a socially accepted significant other (the model); these behaviours are positively reinforced and eventually integrated into the child’s personality profile.

Research
The simulation of an experiment based on hypothetical conditions, considered by some to be a “third form of science” (in addition to theory and experimentation). Modelling is used in neural networks, molecular dynamics, cell membrane interactions and in biosphere analysis. It allows examination of a problem and testing of highly complex hypothetical solutions thereto, performing only experiments with a high probability of success (based on predictions).
 
Suicidology
Suicidal behaviour or completion in response of a person close to the suicide completer.

Theoretical medicine
The use of mathematical models to simulate environmental movements of radionuclides and chemicals released from a radioactive facility’s stacks, and how these materials disperse as they move with the wind, deposit on crops, are inhaled or ingested, and to determine the resulting doses. Some models are complex, requiring information such as weather conditions, crops, eating habits, etc.; others are relatively simple.

mod·el·ing

(mod'ěl-ing)
1. learning theory The acquiring and learning of a new skill byobserving and imitating that behavior being performed by another individual.
2. behavior modification A treatment procedure whereby the therapist or another significant person presents (models) the target behavior which the learner is to imitate.
3. A continuous process by which a bone is altered in size and shape during its growth by resorption and formation of bone at different sites and rates.
Synonym(s): modelling.

modelling

in the context of training, a method whereby a person learns a skill or action by imitating another person (the model) demonstrating the skill or action. The model can be live or videotaped.

bone modelling

reaction of developing bone (i.e. cartilaginous precursor, metaphyses, epiphyses and articular surfaces) to imposed forces (e.g. decreased or increased density) ensuring optimum strain response and lightness (Table 1)
Table 1: Bone modelling
Type of modellingComment
Chondral modelling during bone growthRate of ossification of cartilaginous precursor of bone/articular cartilage/epiphyseal plates depends on imposed load during development
Joint incongruence within normal range: load inequality across articular cartilage causes remodelling and restoration of maximal congruence, via negative-feedback loop
Joint incongruence beyond normal range: load inequality across articular cartilage causes remodelling adapting to abnormal load, and loss of maximal congruence, via positive-feedback loop
Metaphyses and epiphysesWhere abduction and adduction forces about a joint (e.g. knee) are equal, resultant transverse force across the joint is of zero magnitude
Where adductor force > abductor force:
• Soft-tissue anomaly causes soft-tissue positional genu valgum and increases force on lateral articular surface/epiphyseal areas
• Rate of bone growth at lateral areas increases; that of medial areas remains normal
• Joint congruence is restored, and the horizontal force is restored to zero magnitude, but soft-tissue genu valgum deformity persists as bone deformity
Articular surfacesMinor incongruence between articular surfaces within a synovial joint causes large changes in forces acting at different parts of articular surface, e.g.
• Absent subtalar joint inversion/eversion causes trochlear talus to undergo reactive twist within ankle mortise, and compression at articular areas remaining in contact
• Excess loading at these sites reduces local bone growth; unloaded areas continue to grow at normal rate
• Shape of articular surface gradually changes, adapting to abnormal loading pattern, and maximum congruence is achieved, but trochlea becomes rounded (rather than pulley-shaped) and ankle joint forms ball-and-socket, rather than hinge, joint

mod·el·ing

(mod'ěl-ing)
1. A continuous process by which a bone is altered in size and shape during its growth by resorption and formation of bone at different sites and rates.
2. A process by which a representation of an entity is formed.
Synonym(s): modelling.
References in classic literature ?
If she were to try one, she would find her teeth in her way, modelling that action of her face, as she has unconsciously modelled all its other expressions, on her pattern of sordid age.
That picture"--he pointed to Lawson's portrait--"well, the drawing's all right and so's the modelling all right, but just conventional; it ought to be drawn and modelled so that you know the girl's a lousy slut.
Will was very open and careless about his personal affairs, but it was among the more exquisite touches in nature's modelling of him that he had a delicate generosity which warned him into reticence here.
His nose presented the fine shape and modelling so often found among the ancient people of the East, so seldom visible among the newer races of the West.
But your sister is the most enviable person," continued Lucy, turning to Stephen, "to have the talent of modelling.