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mitochondrion[mi″to-kon´dre-ah] (pl. mitochon´dria) (Gr.)
a small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle, the principal sites of ATP synthesis; mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. They also contain DNA, RNA, and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins. adj., adj mitochon´drial.
Plural of mitochondrion.
mitochondria/mi·to·chon·dria/ (mi″to-kon´dre-ah) sing. mitochon´drion [Gr.] small spherical to rod-shaped cytoplasmic organelles, enclosed by two membranes separated by an intermembranous space; the inner membrane is infolded, forming a series of projections (cristae). Mitochondria are the principal sites of ATP synthesis; they contain enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and many other biochemical pathways. They contain their own nucleic acids and ribosomes, replicate independently, and code for the synthesis of some of their own proteins.mitochon´drial
[mī′tōkon′drē·on] pl. mitochondria
Etymology: Gk, mitos, thread, chondros, cartilage
a rodlike, threadlike, or granular organelle that functions in aerobic respiration and occurs in varying numbers in all eukaryotic cells except mature erythrocytes. It is bounded by two sets of membranes, a smooth outer one and an inner one that is arranged in folds, or cristae, that extend into the interior of the mitochondrion, called the matrix. Mitochondria provide the principal source of cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. They also contain the enzymes involved with electron transport and the citric acid and fatty acid cycles. Mitochondria are self-replicating and contain their own DNA, RNA polymerase, transfer RNA, and ribosomes. Also called chondriosome. mitochondrial, adj.
mitochondriaOne of the class of important tiny elements (organelles) in the cytoplasm of nucleated (eukaryotic) cells. They may be rod-shaped, spherical, branched or ring-shaped. Mitochondria have double-layered walls, the inner layer being deeply infolded to form compartments. They contains genes and RIBOSOMES and are the site of cell respiration. Their many functions include the Krebs cycle, metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and steroids, pyruvate oxidation, and the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). MITOCHONDRIAL DNA is transmitted only from the mother and, apart from mutations, remains unchanged through the generations. Mitochondria are believed to have developed from bacteria that colonized primitive eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago, thereby providing them with aerobic metabolism.
Spherical or rod shaped parts of the cell. Mitochondria contain genetic material (DNA and RNA) and are responsible for converting food to energy.
[Gr.] plural of mitochondrion; small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelles that are the principal sites of ATP synthesis; they also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. Mitochondria also contain DNA, RNA and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins.