mitochondria


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to mitochondria: Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondria DNA

mitochondrion

 [mi″to-kon´dre-ah] (pl. mitochon´dria) (Gr.)
a small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle, the principal sites of ATP synthesis; mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. They also contain DNA, RNA, and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins. adj., adj mitochon´drial.
Mitochondrion. This organelle has a double membrane that unfolds and forms cristae. The membrane and cristae serve as attachment sites for oxidative enzymes. From Damjanov, 2000.

mi·to·chon·dri·a

(mī'to-kon'drē-ă),
Plural of mitochondrion.

mitochondria

/mi·to·chon·dria/ (mi″to-kon´dre-ah) sing. mitochon´drion   [Gr.] small spherical to rod-shaped cytoplasmic organelles, enclosed by two membranes separated by an intermembranous space; the inner membrane is infolded, forming a series of projections (cristae). Mitochondria are the principal sites of ATP synthesis; they contain enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and many other biochemical pathways. They contain their own nucleic acids and ribosomes, replicate independently, and code for the synthesis of some of their own proteins.mitochon´drial

mitochondrion

[mī′tōkon′drē·on] pl. mitochondria
Etymology: Gk, mitos, thread, chondros, cartilage
a rodlike, threadlike, or granular organelle that functions in aerobic respiration and occurs in varying numbers in all eukaryotic cells except mature erythrocytes. It is bounded by two sets of membranes, a smooth outer one and an inner one that is arranged in folds, or cristae, that extend into the interior of the mitochondrion, called the matrix. Mitochondria provide the principal source of cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. They also contain the enzymes involved with electron transport and the citric acid and fatty acid cycles. Mitochondria are self-replicating and contain their own DNA, RNA polymerase, transfer RNA, and ribosomes. Also called chondriosome. mitochondrial, adj.
enlarge picture
Mitochondrion

mitochondria

One of the class of important tiny elements (organelles) in the cytoplasm of nucleated (eukaryotic) cells. They may be rod-shaped, spherical, branched or ring-shaped. Mitochondria have double-layered walls, the inner layer being deeply infolded to form compartments. They contains genes and RIBOSOMES and are the site of cell respiration. Their many functions include the Krebs cycle, metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and steroids, pyruvate oxidation, and the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). MITOCHONDRIAL DNA is transmitted only from the mother and, apart from mutations, remains unchanged through the generations. Mitochondria are believed to have developed from bacteria that colonized primitive eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago, thereby providing them with aerobic metabolism.

mitochondria

see MITOCHONDRION.

Mitochondria

Spherical or rod shaped parts of the cell. Mitochondria contain genetic material (DNA and RNA) and are responsible for converting food to energy.

mitochondria

intracellular (including intramuscular) organelles in which oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP takes place: the essential 'power houses' of the cell. See also electron transport chain, Krebs cycle.

mitochondria

ovoid cell organelles, formed of double membranes, the inner layer of which is extensively folded into cristae; site of oxidative phosphorylation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and adenosine triphosphate synthesis

mitochondria

(mī´tōkon´drēə),
n.pl small, rodlike, threadlike, or granular organelles within the cytoplasm that function in cellular metabolism and respiration and occur in varying numbers in all living cells except bacteria, viruses, blue-green algae, and mature erythrocytes.

mitochondria

[Gr.] plural of mitochondrion; small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelles that are the principal sites of ATP synthesis; they also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. Mitochondria also contain DNA, RNA and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins.
References in periodicals archive ?
To learn more about mitochondria and the effects of MitoQ, please view the video and web site: https://www.
The mitochondria, using the enzyme ATP synthase, use the energy produced in the electron transport chain to manufacture adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
html#bib63) Nature , hydrogen sulfide can be toxic to the mitochondria when it interacts synergistically with phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) commonly found in stools.
How do these self-destruct signals inside the mitochondria communicate with proteins far away in the surrounding cell that orchestrate the actual destruction?
Applying what we now know about epicatechin's ability to boost mitochondria numbers may provide an approach to reduce the effects of muscle ageing.
The mitochondria are crucial organelles, not only for energy regulation but also for intracellular signaling and regulation of apoptosis.
The mechanisms for mitochondrial regulation include (1) changes in the number of mitochondria per cell, (2) control of the assembly and disassembly of mitochondria (turnover), (3) changes in the size and surface area of mitochondria and (4) regulation of the numerous catalytic steps important to the control of body fuel utilization, heat and ATP production.
Mitochondria represent an interface between structure and energy, yet scientists have struggled with how to assess mitochondrial status, particularly in vivo.
Last year, researchers showed that swapping nuclear DNA from one rhesus monkey egg to another could separate genetic information in the nucleus from diseased mitochondria (SN: 9/26/09, p.
Mitochondria DNA is separate from that of the cell nucleus and contains far fewer genes.
The landmark research in the US raises the prospect of wiping out diseases caused by defective genes in the mitochondria, which are tiny energy-generating power plants in cells.
In future, the same technique could be used to rid human embryos of bad mitochondria, and the disorders they cause, which include muscle-wasting mitochondrial myopathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy which leads to blindness, and nerve illnesses similar to multiple sclerosis.