mineralocorticoid


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mineralocorticoid

 [min″er-al-o-kor´tĭ-koid]
any of a group of hormones elaborated by the cortex of the adrenal gland, so called because of their effects on sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations in the extracellular fluid. They are the adrenocortical hormones that are essential to the maintenance of adequate fluid volume in the extracellular and intravascular fluid compartments, normal cardiac output, and adequate levels of blood pressure. Without sufficient supply of the mineralocorticoids, fatal shock from diminished cardiac output can occur very quickly.

The principal mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which accounts for most of the activities of this group of hormones. The primary effects of the mineralocorticoids are increasing the reabsorption of sodium and the secretion of potassium in the renal tubules. Secondary effects are related to the reabsorption of water, serum levels of sodium and potassium, anion reabsorption, and secretion of hydrogen ions. The net result of these activities is maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and, therefore, adequate cardiac output.

min·er·al·o·cor·ti·coid

(min'ĕr-al-ō-kōr'ti-koyd),
One of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences water and electrolyte (particularly sodium and potassium ions) metabolism and balance.
Synonym(s): mineralocoid

mineralocorticoid

/min·er·alo·cor·ti·coid/ (min″er-il-o-kor´tĭ-koid)
1. any of the group of corticosteroids, principally aldosterone, primarily involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance through their effect on ion transport in epithelial cells of the renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Cf. glucocorticoid.
2. of, pertaining to, or resembling a mineralocorticoid.

mineralocorticoid

(mĭn′ər-ə-lō-kôr′tĭ-koid′)
n.
Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as aldosterone, that are secreted by the adrenal cortex and regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body.

mineralocorticoid

[min′əral′ōkôr′tikoid]
Etymology: L, minera + cortex, bark; Gk, eidos, form
a hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that maintains normal blood volume, promotes sodium and water retention, and increases urinary excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Aldosterone, the most potent mineralocorticoid with regard to electrolyte balance, acts on the distal tubules of the kidneys to enhance the reabsorption of sodium into the plasma. Trauma and stress increase mineralocorticoid secretion. The synthetic mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone, which has mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid activity, is used to treat the salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome and the severe corticoid deficiency characteristic of Addison's disease. See also glucocorticoid.

mineralocorticoid

Any of the steroid hormones that regulate water and electrolyte equilibrium, acting specifically on renal tubules.

mineralocorticoid

 Any of the steroid hormones–the most important is aldosterone–that regulate water and electrolyte equilibrium, acting specifically on renal tubule

min·er·al·o·cor·ti·coid

(min'ĕr-ăl-ō-kōr'ti-koyd)
One of the steroids of the cortex of the suprarenal gland that influence salt (sodium and potassium) metabolism.
Compare: bioregulator

adrenal glands

endocrine glands sited above each kidney. The outermost region, the adrenal cortex, secretes steroid hormones: the glucocorticoids (principally cortisol), mineralocorticoids (principally aldosterone) and androgens in both male and female. The inner adrenal medulla secretes the catecholamines, mainly adrenaline and noradrenaline, under the control of the sympathetic nervous system. See also adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), hormones, steroids; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

aldosterone

hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, at a rate regulated by the level of sodium in body fluids. Acts in the kidneys to enhance reabsorption of sodium, reducing its loss in the urine. Similar action on sweat glands reduces sodium loss when sweating rate is high. See also hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

mineralocorticoid

synthetic or naturally occurring steroid; influences sodium and potassium balance

min·er·al·o·cor·ti·coid

(min'ĕr-ăl-ō-kōr'ti-koyd)
One of the steroids of the cortex of the suprarenal gland that influences water and electrolyte metabolism and balance.

mineralocorticoid

any of a group of hormones elaborated by the cortex of the adrenal gland, so called because of their effects on sodium, chloride and potassium concentrations in the extracellular fluids. They are the adrenocortical hormones that are essential to the maintenance of adequate fluid volume in the interstitial and intravascular fluid compartments, normal cardiac output and adequate levels of blood pressure. Without sufficient supply of the mineralocorticoids, fatal shock from diminished cardiac output can occur very quickly.
The principal mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which accounts for most of the activities of this group of hormones. The primary effects of the mineralocorticoids are increasing the reabsorption of sodium and the secretion of potassium in the renal tubules. Secondary effects are related to the reabsorption of water, serum levels of sodium and potassium, anion reabsorption and secretion of hydrogen ions. The net result of these activities is maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and, therefore, adequate cardiac output.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mutations in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene cause autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type I.
Colocalization of mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor in the hippocampus and hypothalamus.
The clinical picture of CAH is defined by the absence of cortisol, leading to excessive secretion of ACTH and an accumulation of androgens and DOCA, and thus, patients present with alterations in sexual development, such as ambiguous genitalia in women, a large penis for their age in men, early puberty, or high stature; additionally, the accumulation of mineralocorticoids can lead to the development of hypertensive disorders and severe types of hydroelectrolytic imbalances of unclear pathophysiology (1,2,11)\In the case presented, almost complete virilization, a high stature, and hypertensive disorder were found, without an alteration of the hydroelectrolytic state.
The circulating aldosterone, whose classical targets are kidney epithelium, colon and salivary glands, overpasses the plasma membrane of such tissues and binds to the cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid receptor.
Minireview: Aldosterone and Mineralocorticoid Receptors: Past, Present and Future.
The use of mineralocorticoid antagonists should be reserved for highly refractory cases, as its administration during pregnancy has been controversial for safety reasons.
Clinical case seminar: an amino-terminal DAX1 (NROB1) missense mutation associated with isolated mineralocorticoid deficiency," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
The regulation of ENaC is tissue specific and mediated by the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone and aldosterone-induced proteins, for example, the serum-and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 [10, 11].
If this is indeed the mode of action of liquorice extracts it is plausible that liquorice had no such effect in T84 cells as they lack glucocorticoid as well as mineralocorticoid receptors (Tsugita et al.
Mineralocorticoid deficiency was also proved by low-normal plasma aldosterone, at 7.
8226; Changes the mineralocorticoid binding activity from agonist (prednisone) to antagonist (Verolone), possibly improving heart function in DMD (like epleronone)
11) A defining feature of familial hyperaldosteronism type I is that administration of exogenous glucocorticoids reverses the state of mineralocorticoid excess.