mineral

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mineral

 [min´er-al]
any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more that form the mineral composition of the body; at least 13 are essential to health. These must be supplied in the diet and generally can be supplied by a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products that meet energy and protein needs. For the recommended dietary allowances of common minerals in the United States and Canada, see Appendices 4 and 5. Calcium, iron, and iodine are the ones most frequently missing in the diet. Zinc, copper, magnesium, and potassium are minerals that are frequently involved in disturbances of metabolism. Other essential minerals include selenium, phosphorus, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Minerals are either electropositive or electronegative; combinations of electropositive and electronegative elements lead to the formation of salts such as sodium chloride and calcium phosphate.
mineral oil a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum, available in both light grade (light liquid petrolatum) and heavier grades (liquid or heavy liquid petrolatum). Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, but it may also be used as a cathartic and skin emollient and cleansing agent. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent, and oleaginous vehicle. Prolonged use of mineral oil as a cathartic should be avoided because it prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Lipid pneumonia caused by aspiration of the oil has been shown to occur in those who habitually take it, especially the elderly.

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl),
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

mineral

/min·er·al/ (min´er-al) any nonorganic homogeneous solid substance of the earth's crust.
trace mineral  a mineral trace element.

mineral

(mĭn′ər-əl)
n.
An inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

mineral

[min′ərəl]
Etymology: L, minera, mine
1 an inorganic substance occurring naturally in the earth's crust, having a characteristic chemical composition and (usually) crystalline structure.
2 (in nutrition) a compound containing a metal, nonmetal, radical, or phosphate that is needed for proper body function and maintenance of health. The needed substance is usually ingested as a part of such a compound, such as table salt (sodium chloride), instead of as a free element, and the compound is usually referred to by the name of the needed substance.

mineral

Those metallic elements that are required for optimal functioning of the body. Dietary requirements for minerals range from molar to trace amounts/day; some (e.g., nickel, tin and vanadium) may be required by some plants or animals, but are not known to have a role in human nutrition.

Dietary minerals
Major—Bone: Calcium, phosphate, magnesium. 
Major—Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride. 
Minor—Metalloproteins: Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc. 
Trace: Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin.

Mineral recommended daily allowances/values, sources and benefits
[▪ Mineral—RDA/DV: Food sources; Benefit.]
▪ Calcium—0.8 g/1.0g: Almonds, broccoli, dairy products, fish, fortified orange juice, turnip greens; Bone and teeth growth and 
maintenance, neuromuscular function, blood clotting.
▪ Chloride—750 mcg/none: Salt, salty foods; Electrolyte and fluid balance.
▪ Chromium—50–200 mcg/none: Black pepper, broccoli, brewers’ yeast, brown sugar, dairy products, grape juice, molasses, whole grains; Carbohydrate metabolism.
▪ Copper—1.5–3.0 mg/2.0 mg: Cherries, cocoa, eggs, fish, gelatin, mushrooms, legumes, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Blood cells, connective tissue. 
▪ Fluoride—1.5–4.0 mg/none: Fish, fluoridated water, tea; Strengthens tooth enamel.
▪ Iodine—150 mcg/150 mcg: Iodised salt, milk, shellfish, spinach; Maintains thyroid metabolism.
▪ Iron—10 mg/20 mg: Asparagus, clams, meats, poultry prunes, pumpkin seeds, raisins, soybeans, spinach; Oxygen transportation in red blood cells, metabolism.
▪ Magnesium—350 mg/400 mg: Bananas, broccoli, dairy products, molasses, nuts, pumpkin seeds, seafood, spinach, wheat germ; Neuromuscular activity, bones. 
▪ Manganese—2–5 mg/none: Dairy products, dried fruits, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, tea, whole-grain cereals; Carbohydrate, fat, bone and connective tissue metabolism.
▪ Molybdenum—75–250 µg/none: Breads, cereals, dairy products, legumes, meats, whole grain cereals; Nitrogen metabolism. 
▪ Phosphorus—0.8 g/1.0 g: Cereals, dairy products, eggs, fish, meats, poultry; Energy metabolism, co-acts with calcium to maintain bones.
▪ Potassium—2000 mg/3500 mg: Avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, dairy products, dried fruits, mushrooms, tomatoes; Maintains pH in blood, co-acts with sodium to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Selenium—70 mcg/none: Brazil nuts, dairy products, fish, eats, mushrooms, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Co-acts with vitamin E as an antioxidant. 
▪ Sodium—500 mg/2400 mg: Salt, salty foods, soy sauce; Nervous system function, co-acts with chloride to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Zinc—15 mg/15 mg: Dairy products, fish, lean beef, legumes, lima beans, nuts, oysters, poultry, wheat germ; Wound healing, sperm production, many enzyme reactions.

mineral

Nutrition A popular term for a nonvitamin nutrient needed to maintain health
Dietary minerals
Major minerals–in bone Calcium, phosphate, magnesium
Major minerals–in electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride
Minor minerals–in metalloproteins Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc
Trace minerals Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl)
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

Mineral

A substance that does not contain carbon (inorganic) and is widely distributed in nature. Minerals play an important role in human metabolism.
Mentioned in: Hypercalcemia

mineral,

n an inorganic substance.

mineral

any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more minerals forming the mineral composition of the animal body; at least 13 are essential to health. These minerals must be supplied in the diet and are generally found in a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products which meet the energy and protein needs. Nutritional deficiencies of individual minerals are listed under each of them.

mineral deficiencies
see under the appropriate mineral, e.g. phosphorus, iodine.
mineral flux
the excessive output of a mineral from the animal body, leading to a state of deficiency; a negative balance.
mineral imbalances
imbalances between minerals that need to be maintained in a proper balance with others as well as being present in appropriate absolute amounts, e.g. calcium:phosphorus, sodium:potassium.
mineral-salt mixtures
mixtures of stock grade salt, with sterilized bonemeal, copper, cobalt, iodine and other trace minerals where required, in granular form or in a hard cake for licking. Set out in barns or at pasture for ad lib access by cattle, sheep, goats. Called also lick.
mineral supplements
minerals added to the diet of animals to prevent or correct a nutritional deficiency.
trace mineral
mineral tolerance
limits of dietary supplementation with minerals which animals can survive for a limited period without a decline in their production or performance, and without creating unsafe residues in the human food chain.
References in periodicals archive ?
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