cancer cells), which are demanding higher levels of ascorbate (at millimolar
range) than healthy cells are.
In experiments performed with deoxygenated erythrocytes, different levels of deoxygenation (from 15% up to 90%) were checked by determining Hb saturation spectrophotometrically (Beckman DU 640 spectrophotometer) using the millimolar
absorptivities reported by Zijlstra et al.
Glutamine concentrations in body fluids are in the millimolar
range  and its level is closely related to many disease states.
Glutathione (GSH) is present in eukaryotic cells at millimolar
concentrations and plays direct or indirect roles in many important biological phenomena, including metabolic activity and cell defence against several pathogens, like viruses (Nencioni et al.
Strong acids produced by metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol are present in appreciable millimolar
concentrations and are detectable as an increased anion gap.
Glutathione is a major thiol containing metabolite often present in millimolar
concentrations and also associated with the defense system.
When the dose of acetaminophen is increased to a millimolar
level, SIN-1 nitration of insulin is inhibited to a value of one nitro group/insulin molecule.
The possibility that cephalopod ink functions as a phagomimetic defense has been considered because the ink of cephalopods contains millimolar
concentrations of dissolved free amino acids (Derby et at.
Glutathione is a water-soluble tripeptidethiol found in millimolar
concentrations in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases and exists in reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) states (50).
Absorbance was read at 750 nm using a SpectraMax Microplate Reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA), and TAC activity quantified as millimolar
2+] in the millimolar
range through electrostatic interactions.
For example, ascorbate is preferentially toxic to tumor cells at millimolar