The CBCT units are manufactured with fixed exposure settings or can also be manually adjusted in relation to the peak kilovoltage (kVp) and/or milliamperage
requirements for supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve with surface electrodes.
General technical ALARA strategies to reduce exposure include: 1) weight-based protocols for radiation parameters (eg, kilovoltage, kV; milliamperage
, mAs); and, 2) body and selective organ protective shielding.
Close proximity is obtained by ensuring that a twitch response is obtained at a low milliamperage
current (typically [less than or equal to] 0.
Several academic studies suggest that low electrical current (LEG) disrupts cell membranes and enzymatic activities in both yeast and bacteria, and during the course of several years, the researchers have learned a good deal about the effects of different levels of milliamperage
and types of electrodes.
Automatic exposure control is available on some upper-end machines, measuring the amount of radiation passing through the mandible during the beginning of the exposure and adjusting the kilovoltage peak, milliamperage
and tube-film speed to obtain a well-exposed image.
Additionally, the 2 tubes can be operated independently at different kilovoltage peak (kVp) and milliamperage
The step-down transformer decreases high current from a utility company to milliamperage
(mA), which determines the quantity of x-rays produced.
Several techniques, such as using optimal kilovoltage peak (kVp) and the lowest possible milliamperage
(mA), can significantly reduce radiation dosage to patients and practitioners.
Approaches to Automatic Exposure Control Milliamperage
Pulse Width Kilovolt Peak Control Control Control Automatic Manual Fixed Automatic with manual threshold Manual Fixed Manual Automatic Fixed Automatic Automatic Fixed Automatic Manual Automatic Automatic with manual filter selection Automatic Fixed or automatic Table 1 Radiation Exposures During Diagnostic Procedures (1) Procedure Mean Fluoroscopic Mean Entrance Exposure Time Skin Dose In Minutes (Range) In Milligrays * (Range) Barium enema 3.
generators facilitate short exposure times, which can be essential in imaging children, particularly those stressed by trauma.