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milk letdown, letdown
The ejection of a mother's milk from the alveoli of the breast into the mammary ducts and to the nipple.
1. a nutrient fluid produced by the mammary gland of many mammals for the nourishment of their young.
2. a liquid (emulsion or suspension) resembling the secretion of the mammary gland.
3. to remove milk from the mammary gland.
reported as a cause of death in neonatal puppies and kittens, presumably resulting from bacterial mastitis or metritis which concurrently lowers the pH of the bitch's milk. See also toxic milk (below).
milk fermented with cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus; used in gastrointestinal disorders to modify the bacterial flora of the intestinal tract.
African milk bush
see milk allergy.
augmented milk culture system
includes preculture incubation, followed by freezing, then use of a larger inoculum than usual.
blood in milk
see blood in milk.
milk stored on the farm in a bulk tank (or tanks) which are refrigerated stainless steel tanks that can quickly cool milk and hold it cold until it is picked up by a bulk milk tank truck.
a prepared milk containing very little salts and sugars and a large amount of fat and casein.
very young chickens weighing 0.5 to 1 lb (0.25 to 0.50 kg); birds up to 2 lb (1.0 kg) are accepted. Called also poussins.
coagulation of milk in the abomasum of the calf, precipitated by rennin, the enzyme produced by the abomasal mucosa, converts the dissolved casein into a rubbery clot. See also chymosin.
milk that has been partly evaporated and sweetened with sugar.
milk cow, milch cow
cow used expressly for the production of milk for human consumption.
days in milk (DIM)
the number of days during a lactation that a cow has been milking, beginning with the last date of calving to the current test date.
the dentition of sucklings, the deciduous teeth.
milk from which the sugar has been removed by dialysis through a parchment membrane.
milk drinker's syndrome
metastatic calcification in young animals kept on high milk intakes for long periods.
milk drop syndrome
a sudden and often unexplained fall in milk production in a dairy herd. It can occur when any disease or condition affects a significant proportion of a herd at one time; identified causes include poisoning by Neotyphodium(Acremonium) coeniophialum or Claviceps purpurea, infection with Leptospira hardjo, severe combined nutritional and environmental stress.
filling of the teat and udder cisterns with milk in response to teat stimulation, the response being effected via a release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary; called also letdown.
milk prepared by evaporation of half of its water content.
see butterfat, milk lipid (below).
milk fat depression
a neonate still being suckled by the dam or being reared on artificial milk replacer.
a metabolic disease of mature dairy cows occurring just before or soon after calving; signs are muscular weakness, peripheral circulatory failure with cool skin, small amplitude pulse, soft heart sounds, recumbency and drowsiness. Definitive clinical pathology is hypocalcemia. The same syndrome occurs in ewes; called also moss-ill.
fine, flat sheets of fibrin as part of the inflammatory process in the cow's udder, especially in cases of coliform mastitis.
milk flow sensor
a sensor fitted in the long milk tube from the cluster to the milk line which is sensitive to the rate of flow; designed to trigger the automatic removal of the cluster when the rate of flow of milk in the milk tube falls below a predetermined level.
milk made more nutritious by addition of cream, egg white or vitamins.
the process of producing, extracting and storing milk on the farm.
milk treated so that the fats form a permanent emulsion and the cream does not separate.
drops of milk from other teat cups propelled vigorously against the teat ends of susceptible-to-mastitis quarters during, and as a result of teat cup liner slips.
inappropriate production of milk
deficiency of intestinal lactase which results in diarrhea, abdominal distention and cramping. Occurs most commonly in puppies and kittens.
palpable, milk-containing dilations in the lactiferous ducts in the udder, especially of cows.
see milk leg.
teats which drip milk between milkings have defective external sphincters and are susceptible to infection. Also occurs when the udder is very full, e.g. just before calving, or when letdown has occurred prior to milking when the intramammary pressure exceeds the closing forces of the normal teat end sphincter.
see letdown (1).
the site for future location of mammary glands developing early as a ridge along the ventral abdomen of the embryo.
butter fat globules in the milk; some is synthesized by mammary epithelium, some is secreted unchanged from the bloodstream.
normal milk but with the normal fat percentage greatly reduced, e.g. to below 50%; usually due to feeding finely ground grain or low-fiber roughage.
milk of magnesia
a suspension containing 7-8.5% of magnesium hydroxide, used as an antacid and laxative.
flow meter at each unit in a milking machine designed to measure the yield of milk for each cow at each milking.
peak milk yield
in cows the period during early lactation when the amount of milk produced per day is higher than at any other time. In bitches and queens, maximum lactation is achieved at 3-4 weeks postpartum.
rate of decline of milk production from the peak. This is in effect the duration of the cow's production of an amount of milk which is worth harvesting; in commercial dairying cows are usually dried off when their daily yield falls to less than 4 liters. In good herds most cows are dried off because they have been in milk for the specified duration.
a stainless steel or glass pipe used for transporting milk by gravity to storage. May be above the milking units (high line) or below the level of the units (low line).
1. the secretion of milk by the mammary epithelium.
2. the volume of milk produced, usually quoted for a year or a lactation, sometimes quoted as kg of butterfat or of milk solids produced. Used as the benchmark of productivity of dairy cows.
milk production data
records of volume and components of milk produced by individual cows or the whole herd, either actually measured, or aspirated from periodic samplings.
milk progesterone tests
see pregnancy tests.
milk modified to have a relatively low content of carbohydrate and fat and a relatively high protein content.
used as replacement for milk in calf, lamb and piglet diets to permit early weaning and to rear orphans. Milk replacers are manufactured from dried milk products but may contain large amounts of animal fats, nonmilk carbohydrates and proteins. The dried milk powder used may also have been denatured during heat treatment. Poor replacers cause dietary diarrhea. Should contain less than 0.1% plant fiber, 36-40% lactose, 30-40% fat, 28-32% milk protein.
milk replacer malnutrition
malnutrition in calves fed on poorly formulated milk replacer.
milk ring test
is used for surveillance of brucellosis prevalence in dairy cattle. It depends on the presence of agglutinable antibodies in the milk and the agglutination of added stained antigen by antibodies in the milk of positive reacting cows.
milk sample culturing
from cows may be composite of all quarters in one sample or single quarter samples. Samples must be refrigerated until cultured. Culture on sheep blood agar is standard but many special media available for particular purposes.
alopecic dermatitis around the muzzle of bucket-fed calves caused by frequent immersion in milk.
the disease of humans caused by the drinking of milk from cows which have been eating eupatoriumrugosum; the milk contains tremetol.
see skim milk.
combined yield of fat and protein in the milk.
1 mm diameter white spots in the capsule of the pig's liver caused by migration of Ascaris suum larvae.
the period of plant growth after blooming has finished when the seed is formed but still soft and milky when squeezed.
a calcareous deposit which accumulates in milking machinery and utensils over a long period if proper cleaning techniques are not practiced.
see milk dentition (above).
see calf hypomagnesemic tetany.
bacterial toxins in the dam's milk are believed to be the cause of death in neonatal puppies and kittens.
see uterine milk.
subcutaneous abdominal veins of lactating cows. See also Table 15.
see marsdenia rostrata.
opening through the ventral abdominal wall to permit entry of milk vein.
milk as it is drawn from the udder, undiluted, not separated into skim milk, buttermilk, whey. See also whole milk fed.
see milk production (above).