also was used in executions that took longer than usual in Arizona and Ohio last year.
Texas, which has executed 527 inmates since 1982 and has struggled with keeping execution drugs in stock for at least the past four years, currently has 40 vials of midazolam
that will expire next spring.
is used as the first chemical in a three-part drug cocktail.
In contrast to findings in the other national surveys, [7-12] midazolam
was the preferred sedative in this SA study.
Kay Parish, one of Ringo's attorneys, says that the Missouri Department of Corrections may have altered its procedures for midazolam
For example, studies have concluded that seizure cessation was faster with diazepam, but the time to administer IV diazepam was greater than intranasal midazolam
(Javadzadeh et al.
The hydroxylation of midazolam
, reactions considered to be CYP3A-mecliated in the human (CYP3A4) and rat (CYP3A1/2), leads to the major metabolite 1'-hydroxy midazolam
(Chovan et al.
However, there is no good evidence to avoid appropriate use of midazolam
The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials associated with oromucosal midazolam
were sedation, somnolence, depressed levels of consciousness, respiratory depression, and nausea and vomiting.
During procedure Propofol alone used in 110 patients and combination Propofol and midazolam
used 20 patients as an induction agent and sedation purpose.
can also cause respiratory problems, as well as chest pains and acts like a sedative.
The youngster was prescribed buccal midazolam
, which is rubbed into the gums, to be used when a seizure lasts more than five minutes.