microglia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to microglia: Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes

microglia

 [mi-krog´le-ah]
non-neural cells forming part of the adventitial structure of the central nervous system. They are migratory and act as phagocytes of waste products of the nervous system. adj., adj microg´lial.

mi·crog·li·a

(mī-krog'lē-ă), This word is grammatically singular. Avoid the mispronunciation microgli'a.
Small neuroglial cells of the central nervous system, originating in the bone marrow, that may become phagocytic in areas of neural damage or inflammation.
[micro- + G. glia, glue]

microglia

/mi·crog·lia/ (mi-krog´le-ah) small nonneural cells forming part of the supporting structure of the central nervous system. They are migratory and act as phagocytes to waste products of nerve tissue.microg´lial
Enlarge picture
Microglia.

microglia

(mī′krō-glē′ə, -glī′-)
n.
(used with a pl. verb) Any of the small neuroglial cells of the central nervous system having long processes and amoeboid and phagocytic activity at sites of neural damage or inflammation.

microglia

[mīkrog′lē·ə]
Etymology: Gk, mikros + glia, glue
small, migratory interstitial cells that form part of the central nervous system. They have various forms and slender, branched processes. Microglia serve as phagocytes that collect waste products of the nerve tissue of the body. Also called Hortega cells, mesoglia.
enlarge picture
Microglia

microglial cell

A perivascular bone-marrow-derived cell native to the CNS, belonging to the mononuclear phagocytic system (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes), which presents antigens in an MHC-class-II restricted context.

mi·crog·li·a

(mī-krog'lē-ă)
Small neuroglial cells, possibly of mesodermal origin, which may become phagocytic, in areas of neural damage or inflammation.
Synonym(s): Hortega cells.
[micro- + G. glia, glue]
Enlarge picture
MICROGLIA

microglia

(mi-krog'le-a) [? + glia, glue]
Cells of the central nervous system (CNS) present between neurons or next to capillaries. These cells may function as macrophages when they migrate to damaged CNS tissue.
See: gitter cell; illustration

microglia

Neurological connective tissue MACROPHAGES. Compare MACROGLIA.

Hortega,

Pio del Rio, Spanish neurohistologist in South America, 1882-1945.
Hortega cells - small neuroglial cells that may become phagocytic in areas of neural damage or inflammation. Synonym(s): microglia
Hortega neuroglia stain - one of several silver carbonate methods to demonstrate astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and microglia.

microglia

non-neural cells forming part of the adventitial structure of the central nervous system. They are migratory and act as phagocytes of waste products of the nervous system.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, we used Iba-1 as the microglial marker, and confirmed the expression of CX3CR1 (green) in microglia (red) within the CSF-contacting nucleus (Figure 2D-F), which has been extensively reported (17,18).
In the 200 mg/kg GLE-sham group, the morphology and distribution of microglia and their ROD were similar to those in the vehicle-sham group [Figure 3]n and [Figure 3]h.
This new protocol now enables scientists around the world to generate this critical cell type from individual patients and improve our understanding of the role of microglia neurological malfunction.
In this paper, I describe recent advances in understanding the mechanism of evoking tactile allodynia in neuropathic pain through the functions of P2X4 receptors in spinal microglia after PNI.
It was highly unexpected to see the deactivation of microglia in the hippocampus," explained Barbara Klein, one of the authors of the study: "Partly because other studies have shown the reverse effect on microglia following bacterial infection.
In this study, three different types of CNS cell lines, BV2 murine microglia, C6 glioma and mouse neuro2a (N2a), were used in order to study the cytoprotective, anti-neuroinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of LNE.
Or that she would be arguing in the world's top scientific journals that microglia might hold the key to understanding not just normal brain development but also what causes Alzheimer's, Huntington's, autism, schizophrenia, and other intractable brain disorders.
Although microglia are vital in the inflammatory process in the CNS, they may have less chance to be activated during a peripheral bacterial infection, as LPS may not be able to enter the CNS due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
In this study, we describe the patterns of microglia activation, astrocytosis, oligodendrocyte damage, Nogo-A immunoreactivity, and myelin impairment from 3 days to 30 days following focal ischemia induced by microinjections of endothelin-1 (ET-1) into the rat striatum.
Thus, M1 microglia and other monocyte-like cells consistently express multiple cytokine receptors and TLRs that, when activated, induce innate immune genes, such as proinflammatory cytokines, proteases, and oxidases, which help to break down, process, and remove damaged cells and tissue.
All of the major classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, and microglia, are covered.
Finding increased levels of the translocator protein (TSPO) in regions like the thalamus--the brain's sensory gateway for pain and other stimuli--is important, since we know that this protein is highly expressed in microglia and astrocytes, the immune cells of the central nervous system, when they are activated in response to some pathologic event," says Marco Loggia of the MGH-based Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, who also is assistant professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School and lead author of the report.