microencephaly


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

mi·cren·ceph·a·ly

(mī'kren-sef'ă-lē),
Abnormal smallness of the brain.
[micro- + G. enkephalos, brain]

microencephaly

[mī′krō·ensef′əlē]
Etymology: Gk, mikros, small, egkephalos, brain
the condition of being born with an abnormally small brain.

microcephaly

An abnormally small head, which is usually associated with neurodevelopmental delay and mental retardation. A standard definition is any brain or head which is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person’s age, sex, height, weight and race.

Conditions associated with microcephaly
Cockayne, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Rothmund-Thomson, and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes; chromosomal defects (cat-cry or 5p- and trisomy 13 syndromes), in utero infection (CMV), rubella, toxoplasmosis, toxic exposure (foetal alcohol and foetal hydantoin syndromes), radiation (the only confirmed congenital defect specifically linked to atomic bomb blasts (i.e., in Hiroshima and Nagasaki)), or trauma.

Genes linked to microcephaly
ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, MCPH1, MCPH2, MCPH4.

mi·cren·ceph·a·ly

(mī'kren-sef'ă-lē)
Abnormal smallness of the brain.
Synonym(s): microencephaly.
[micro- + G. enkephalos, brain]

microencephaly

small size of the brain. Usually accompanied by microcephaly.
References in periodicals archive ?
had a younger sister with microencephaly who had also had ESRD for several years.
Pervasive hyperactivity and long-term learning impairments in rats with induced microencephaly from prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol.
1976); in cats, this condition has been reported to be accompanied by microencephaly and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellum (HERRMANN et al.
Lauren has cerebral palsy, microencephaly, seizures, moderate hearing loss, visual impairment, and developmental delays caused by oxygen deprivation at birth.
For example, early studies of prenatal alcohol-induced neuropathology were derived from postmortem tissue, which showed that prenatal alcohol leads to microencephaly (small brain), as well as neuroglial heterotopias (nerve cells that have migrated to the wrong location) and disrupted development of the corpus callosum and cerebellum (Clarren et al.
Microcephaly is defined as having a small head relative to body size and is based on the ratio of body weight to head circumference or height-to-head circumference (not to be confused with microencephaly, which refers to the size of the brain).