Differential de-toxification and anti-oxidant response in diverse organs of Corydoras paleatus experimentally exposed to microcystin
The cyanobacterial toxin microcystin
caused the largest reported toxin contamination of community drinking water in August 2013 and September 2014 and was responsible for extensive community and water disruptions.
On August 2, city officials detected high concentrations of microcystin
(a liver toxin produced by cyanobacteria) and banned drinking city water.
Among the mcy genes, a region of the mcyB, has been often used as a molecular marker for the detection of microcystin
producers (Bittencourt-Oliveira, 2003; Dyble et al.
The acute effects of microcystin
LR on the transcription of nine glutathione S-transferase genes in common carp Cyprinus carpio L.
is a component of what's lovingly called blue-green algae, or other confusing names like cyanobacteria.
estimation using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
toxins act by bonding with protein phosphatase enzymes, especially in liver cells, causing cell damage.
The concentration found in this study represents 1000 times greater than the permissible limit for microcystin
drinking water .
One of the most common cyanotoxins found in eutrophic systems is microcystin
, a hepatotoxin produced by certain genera of cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Nostoc.
After examination of the fish, LDWF staff speculated the emaciation was caused by increased levels of domoic acid and microcystin
in the diet of the fish though this was never verified (pers.
Algae toxins--The Toledo Blade reported that a Lake Erie algal bloom producing microcystin
toxins is one of the largest in history.